Theme: De novo Advancements and Challenges of Sleep disorders, and Medical Conditions related to Advanced Sleep therapy

Sleep Medicine 2016

Sleep Medicine 2016

OMICS Group Conference series invites you to attend the 2nd International Conference on Sleep Disorders and Medicine popularly known as Sleep Medicine 2016which is going to be held during November 28th -30th, 2016 at Atlanta, USA.

The 2nd International Conference on Sleep Disorders and Medicine will schedule and coordinate all meetings with our Editorial Board across the World. The scientific program paves a way to gather visionaries through the research talks and presentations and put forward many thought provoking information and therapeutic techniques related to Sleep Disorders.    

We look forward to seeing you in Atlanta!!

Scientific Sessions:

Track 1: Novel Insights in Sleep Disorders

Sleep disorders are gaining more importance in the society due to various reasons. It has been found that around 50-70 million of the total population of United States experience sleep or wakefulness disorder. Sleep disorder in the young have psychosocial consequences with an impact on work, education and mental health may also underpin unemployment. The use of social media and nightly entertainment in young subjects may blur the clinical picture sometimes hinder a diagnosis of a real sleep disorder. Impact of sleep disturbances is increasingly focused in the society with regard to traffic safety where accidents can be related to reduce mental concentration due to sleepiness. The general outcome of a variety of diseases is increasingly highlighted, like Alzheimer’sepilepsy and Parkinson’s disease.

The locution of the session is to know the information of the topics like mechanisms Substrates and neurodevelopment of sleep regulation and Relationships and potential mechanisms underlying sleep, neurologic disorders, complicated nocturnal behaviors, Chronobiology and brain operate, Aging and also the sleeping brain, Metabolomics and Sleep: translational Approaches from Animals to Humans, advanced sleep medicine research

Related Sleep Conferences | Sleep disorder Conferences | Neuroscience Conferences

2nd International Conference on Sleep Disorders and Medicine, November 28-30, 2016 Atlanta, USA, 6th World Congress on Neurology and Neurological disorders, September 28-30, 2016 Toronto, Canada; 2nd International Conference on Parkinson’s Disease and  Movement Disorders, December 05-07, 2016 Phoenix, USA, 2nd International Conference on Central Nervous System Disorders and Therapeutics, December 05-07, 2016 Dubai, UAE, 4 International Conference on Vascular Dementia on June 30 - July 02, 2016 Valencia, Spain, International Conference and Exhibition on Dual Diagnosis, July 18-19, 2016 Chicago, Illinois, USA, International Conference on Neuro Oncology and Brain Tumor, July 21-22, 2016 Brisbane, Australia,10th International Neuroscience and Biological Psychiatry ISBS Regional on December 01- 03, 2016, at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, Havana 2016 - 18th World Congress of Psychophysiology on August 31, 2016 - 04 September 2016 at Havana, Cuba, 9th International Regional Neuroscience and Biological Psychiatry Conference "Stress and Behaviour" (China and South East Asia) on October 27-29, 2016 at Zhanjiang, China, International Neuroscience and Biological Psychiatry ISBS Symposium "Translational Neuroscience Of Stress" on November 10 - 11, 2016 at San Diego, USA, Society for Neuroscience 2016 Annual Meeting on November 12 - 16, 2016 at San Diego, USA, 2016 Sleep Summit on November 22 - 24, 2016 at London, United Kingdom, Cerebral Palsy Foundation and  CHADD – Children and  Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Dana Foundation and  Dandy-Walker Alliance, Fight SMA and  FOCUS Families, Epilepsy Foundation and  Epilepsy Institute, American Association on Health and  Disability and  American Autoimmune Related Diseases Association

Track 2: Neurobiology of Sleep and Wakefulness

A general clinical background is sketched about sleep cycle, circadian rhythms, biological clock, aiming at building a structure for efficient diagnosing. Which is a detailed flat form of Neuroimaging of Sleep and Sleep Disorders concerning imaging methods in sleep medicine highlights the evolving investigation possibilities from research and clinical aspects. It is a volume that we do recommend as a guide and inspiration for the researcher in the fields of Sleep wake disorders, Sleep Loss and Risk of cardiovascular disease state of the Art for Clinical Practitioners and Video Polysomnographic analysis (Diagnosis and Scoring) of Sleep connected Movement Disorders and complex Nocturnal Behaviours, Home sleep apnea Testing, Cataplexy

Related Sleep Conferences | Sleep disorder Conferences | Neuroscience Conferences

6th World Congress on Neurology and Neurological disorders, September 28-30, 2016 Toronto, Canada; 2nd International Conference on Sleep Disorders and Medicine, November 28-30, 2016 Atlanta, USA, 2nd International Conference on Central Nervous System Disorders and Therapeutics, December 5-7 2016, Dubai, UAE; 2nd International Conference on Parkinson’s Disease and Movement Disorders November 28-30, 2016 Atlanta, USA; International Conference on Neurorehabilitation, July 21-22, 2016 Brisbane, Australia; 7th Global Neurologists Annual Meeting on Neurology and Neuro Surgery, August 22-24, 2016 Vienna, Austria; 1st Middle Eastern Conference for Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery 2016, Dubai; International Conference on Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS), Germany. 6th Annual Traumatic Brain Injury Conference Washington, United States. 21st International Conference on Brain Tumor Research and Therapy, 17th International conference on pediatric neurooncology , Accelerated Cure Project for Multiple Sclerosis and Acid Maltase Deficiency Association, Acoustic Neuroma Association and ADA Disability and Business Technical Assistance Program, Aicardi Syndrome Foundation and Alliance for Aging Research, ALS Association and ALS Therapy Development Institute, Alternating Hemiplegia of Childhood Foundation and Alzheimer’s Drug Discovery Foundation.

Track 3: Insomnia and Circadian Rhythm Disorders

Insomnia is a sleep disorder that is characterized by difficulty falling and/or staying asleep. The Persons with insomnia have one or more of the following: Difficulty falling asleep or Waking up often during the night and having trouble going back to sleep, Waking up too early in the morning, Feeling tired upon waking. There are two types of insomnia: primary insomnia and secondary insomnia.

Circadian Rhythm disorders are defined as Disturbances in circadian rhythm, 24-hour cycles that are endogenously generated by an organism can be categorized into 2 main groups: transient disorders and chronic disorders. Insomnia is defined as difficulty initiating or maintaining sleep. This session throws a light on Primary Insomnia and secondary insomnia: causes, diagnosis and treatment, Anxiety and Depression: Two of the Most Common Causes of Chronic Insomnia, Delayed and advance sleep-phase syndrome, How Molecular Genetics Can Tell Us How We Wake Up and Why  do We Sleep, Fluctuations ain female hormones and Periodic or temporary insomnia, Rhythmic Movements During Sleep, Diagnosis and Treatment of Circadian Rhythm Sleep-Wake Disorders

 

 Related Sleep Conferences | Sleep disorder Conferences | Neuroscience Conferences

International Conference and Exhibition on Dual Diagnosis, July 18-19, 2016 Chicago, Illinois, USA, International Conference on Neuro Oncology and Brain Tumor, July 21-22, 2016 Brisbane, Australia, 2nd International Conference on Sleep Disorders and Medicine, November 28-30, 2016 Atlanta, USA, 6th World Congress on Neurology and Neurological disorders, September 28-30, 2016 Toronto, Canada; 2nd International Conference on Parkinson’s Disease and  Movement Disorders, December 05-07, 2016 Phoenix, USA, 2nd International Conference on Central Nervous System Disorders and Therapeutics, December 05-07, 2016 Dubai, UAE, 4 International Conference on Vascular Dementia on June 30 - July 02, 2016 Valencia, Spain,10th International Neuroscience and Biological Psychiatry ISBS Regional on December 01- 03, 2016, at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, Havana 2016 - 18th World Congress of Psychophysiology on August 31, 2016 - 04 September 2016 at Havana, Cuba, 9th International Regional Neuroscience and Biological Psychiatry Conference "Stress and Behaviour" (China and South East Asia) on October 27-29, 2016 at Zhanjiang, China, International Neuroscience and Biological Psychiatry ISBS Symposium "Translational Neuroscience Of Stress" on November 10 - 11, 2016 at San Diego, USA, Society for Neuroscience 2016 Annual Meeting on November 12 - 16, 2016 at San Diego, USA, 2016 Sleep Summit on November 22 - 24, 2016 at London, United Kingdom, Cerebral Palsy Foundation and  CHADD – Children and  Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Dana Foundation and  Dandy-Walker Alliance, Fight SMA and  FOCUS Families, Epilepsy Foundation and  Epilepsy Institute, American Association on Health and  Disability and  American Autoimmune Related Diseases Association

 

Track 4: Dental Sleep Medicine

Dental Sleep Medicine is an area of practice that focuses on the management of sleep-related breathing disorders including snoring and obstructive sleep apnea through the use of oral appliance therapy and upper airway surgery. This session includes key topics like drowsy driving, Orthodontics oral health, and PaediatricDentistry and many others.

According to the recent studies and investigations the vast major of sleep related breathing cases go untreated and undiagnosed. Institute of Medicine report found that an estimated 50-70 million Americans suffer from chronic sleep disorders including sleep apnea. EDS alone costs the economy $150 billion in lost productivity and workplace accidents another $48 billion in medical expenses related to auto accidents involving drowsy driving, An Approximate 1 in 5 car accidents causing serious injury are associated with excessive daytime sleepiness.

Dentists together with sleep physicians are challenged to respond to the health risks and economic impact of untreated sleep apnea and excessive daytime sleepiness. This partnership tasks physicians with the recognition and diagnosis of sleep disorders, while dentists provide the treatment.

Sleep apnea is a potentially life-threatening medical disorder that causes your body to stop breathing during sleep. The muscles in your throat relax and the tongue may fall back and block the airway as you sleep, reducing the amount of oxygen delivered to all of your organs including your heart and brain. People with sleep apnea may snore loudly and stop breathing for short periods of time. The breathing pauses from sleep cause your body to briefly wake while you remain unaware. This can happen hundreds of times per night, and you may wake up feeling un refreshed.

In addition to snoring and excessive daytime sleepiness, sleep apnea can cause memory loss, morning headaches, irritability, depression, decreased sex drive and impaired concentration. When left untreated, sleep apnea can lead to hypertension, stroke, heart attack and sudden death while asleep.

Sleep apnea patient are often older, obese and have thick necks, but men and women of any age or body type can have sleep apnea. The sleep disorder progressively worsens with age and weight gain.

 

 Related Sleep Conferences | Sleep disorder Conferences | Neuroscience Conferences

International Conference on Neuro Oncology and Brain Tumor, July 21-22, 2016 Brisbane, Australia, 2nd International Conference on Sleep Disorders and Medicine, November 28-30, 2016 Atlanta, USA, International Conference and Exhibition on Dual Diagnosis, July 18-19, 2016 Chicago, Illinois, USA, 6th World Congress on Neurology and Neurological disorders, September 28-30, 2016 Toronto, Canada; 2nd International Conference on Parkinson’s Disease and  Movement Disorders, December 05-07, 2016 Phoenix, USA, 2nd International Conference on Central Nervous System Disorders and Therapeutics, December 05-07, 2016 Dubai, UAE, 4 International Conference on Vascular Dementia on June 30 - July 02, 2016 Valencia, Spain,10th International Neuroscience and Biological Psychiatry ISBS Regional on December 01- 03, 2016, at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, Havana 2016 - 18th World Congress of Psychophysiology on August 31, 2016 - 04 September 2016 at Havana, Cuba, 9th International Regional Neuroscience and Biological Psychiatry Conference "Stress and Behaviour" (China and South East Asia) on October 27-29, 2016 at Zhanjiang, China, International Neuroscience and Biological Psychiatry ISBS Symposium "Translational Neuroscience Of Stress" on November 10 - 11, 2016 at San Diego, USA, Society for Neuroscience 2016 Annual Meeting on November 12 - 16, 2016 at San Diego, USA, 2016 Sleep Summit on November 22 - 24, 2016 at London, United Kingdom, Cerebral Palsy Foundation and  CHADD – Children and  Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Dana Foundation and  Dandy-Walker Alliance, Fight SMA and  FOCUS Families, Epilepsy Foundation and  Epilepsy Institute, American Association on Health and  Disability and  American Autoimmune Related Diseases Association

Track 5: Hypersomnia’s and Neurologic Sleep Disorders

These practice parameters pertain to the treatment of hypersomnia’s of central origin. It serves as both an update of previous practice parameters for the therapy of narcolepsy and as the first practice parameters to address treatment of other hypersomnia of central origin. Specific disorders addressed by these parameters are narcolepsy (with or without cataplexy, due to medical condition), the idiopathic hypersomnia, recurrent hypersomnia and hyperxsomnia due to medical condition.

Central hypersomnias are diseases manifested in excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) not caused by disturbed nocturnal sleep or misaligned circadian rhythms. The Central hypersomnias includes narcolepsy with or without cataplexy, idiopathic hypersomnia. recurrent hypersomnia, with and without long sleep , behaviorally induced insufficient sleep disorder, Narcolepsy and hypersomnia due to medical conditions, and finally hypersomnia induced by substance intake. Epworth Sleepiness Scale is a subjective tool mostly used for Excessive daytime sleepiness assessment, Whereas  the Multiple Sleep Latency Test serves as an objective diagnostic method for narcolepsy and idiopathic hypersomnias. As for symptomatic therapy of EDS, the central nervous system stimulants modafinil and methylphenidate seem to work well in most cases and in narcolepsy and Parkinson’s disease; sodium oxybate also has notable therapeutic value.

In 1966, William Dement proposed that patients with excessive daytime sleepiness, but without cataplexy, sleep paralysis, or sleep-onset rapid eye movement (REM), should not be considered narcoleptic. In 1972, Roth described a type of hypersomnia with sleep drunkenness that consists of difficulty coming to complete wakefulness, confusion, disorientation, poor motor coordination, and slowness, accompanied by deep and prolonged sleep. The abrupt sleep attacks seen in classic narcolepsy are not present in this disorder.

 

 Related Sleep Conferences | Sleep disorder Conferences | Neuroscience Conferences

2nd International Conference on Sleep Disorders and Medicine, November 28-30, 2016 Atlanta, USA, International Conference and Exhibition on Dual Diagnosis, July 18-19, 2016 Chicago, Illinois, USA, 6th World Congress on Neurology and Neurological disorders, September 28-30, 2016 Toronto, Canada; 2nd International Conference on Parkinson’s Disease and  Movement Disorders, December 05-07, 2016 Phoenix, USA, International Conference on Neuro Oncology and Brain Tumor, July 21-22, 2016 Brisbane, Australia, 2nd International Conference on Central Nervous System Disorders and Therapeutics, December 05-07, 2016 Dubai, UAE, 4 International Conference on Vascular Dementia on June 30 - July 02, 2016 Valencia, Spain,10th International Neuroscience and Biological Psychiatry ISBS Regional on December 01- 03, 2016, at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, Havana 2016 - 18th World Congress of Psychophysiology on August 31, 2016 - 04 September 2016 at Havana, Cuba, 9th International Regional Neuroscience and Biological Psychiatry Conference "Stress and Behaviour" (China and South East Asia) on October 27-29, 2016 at Zhanjiang, China, International Neuroscience and Biological Psychiatry ISBS Symposium "Translational Neuroscience Of Stress" on November 10 - 11, 2016 at San Diego, USA, Society for Neuroscience 2016 Annual Meeting on November 12 - 16, 2016 at San Diego, USA, 2016 Sleep Summit on November 22 - 24, 2016 at London, United Kingdom, Cerebral Palsy Foundation and  CHADD – Children and  Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Dana Foundation and  Dandy-Walker Alliance, Fight SMA and  FOCUS Families, Epilepsy Foundation and  Epilepsy Institute, American Association on Health and  Disability and  American Autoimmune Related Diseases Association

 

Track 6: Pediatric Sleep Disorders: Diagnosis and Treatment

Paediatric sleep disorders represent highly common phenomena that often interfere with daily patient and family functioning. Interest in and treatment of sleep disturbances in youth continues to increase, but research continues to lag. A recent survey indicated that paediatricians were more likely to prescribe antidepressant medications for insomnia than psychiatrists. Further investigation is needed to develop empirically based detection and treatment of paediatric sleep disorders.

Parasomnias result in disruption of an existing state of sleep. Arousals, partial arousals, and sleep-stage transition impositions define this category. An alternative definition of these phenomena describes deviated behavioural or physiologic events that transpire during sleep, specific sleep stages, or sleep-wake transitions. Insomnia or excessive sleepiness is uncommon in parasomnias despite intrusion upon sleep; these symptoms are characteristic of dyssomnia.

Most parasomnias affect otherwise healthy youths and commonly subside over the course of adolescence. These disorders are typically viewed as transient developmental phenomena, though children with parasomniashave been found to display higher rates of sleep-onset delay, night awakenings, bedtime resistance, and reduced sleep duration compared to a community control group.

Medical-psychiatric–associated sleep disorders comprise the neuropsychiatric conditions that typically include sleep disturbances. This category has been eliminated in DSM-5 but should still be considered by the clinician when evaluating sleep disorders. The medical differential should include the following: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), Pervasive developmental disorders, Mental retardation, Down syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome, Smith-Magenis syndrome, Tourette disorder, Nocturnal asthma, Depressive disorders, Anxiety disorders, Mania , Neuromuscular disorders, Nocturnal seizures ,Kleine-Levin syndrome,Chronic fatigue syndrome, Headaches, Blindness with associated sleep disorder. Conference series is organising conference on pediatric sleep medicine conference which is called as 2016 sleep conference

 Related Sleep Conferences | Sleep disorder Conferences | Neuroscience Conferences

6th World Congress on Neurology and Neurological disorders, September 28-30, 2016 Toronto, Canada; 2nd International Conference on Sleep Disorders and Medicine, November 28-30, 2016 Atlanta, USA, International Conference and Exhibition on Dual Diagnosis, July 18-19, 2016 Chicago, Illinois, USA,  2nd International Conference on Parkinson’s Disease and  Movement Disorders, December 05-07, 2016 Phoenix, USA, International Conference on Neuro Oncology and Brain Tumor, July 21-22, 2016 Brisbane, Australia, 2nd International Conference on Central Nervous System Disorders and Therapeutics, December 05-07, 2016 Dubai, UAE, 4 International Conference on Vascular Dementia on June 30 - July 02, 2016 Valencia, Spain,10th International Neuroscience and Biological Psychiatry ISBS Regional on December 01- 03, 2016, at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, Havana 2016 - 18th World Congress of Psychophysiology on August 31, 2016 - 04 September 2016 at Havana, Cuba, 9th International Regional Neuroscience and Biological Psychiatry Conference "Stress and Behaviour" (China and South East Asia) on October 27-29, 2016 at Zhanjiang, China, International Neuroscience and Biological Psychiatry ISBS Symposium "Translational Neuroscience Of Stress" on November 10 - 11, 2016 at San Diego, USA, Society for Neuroscience 2016 Annual Meeting on November 12 - 16, 2016 at San Diego, USA, 2016 Sleep Summit on November 22 - 24, 2016 at London, United Kingdom, Cerebral Palsy Foundation and  CHADD – Children and  Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Dana Foundation and  Dandy-Walker Alliance, Fight SMA and  FOCUS Families, Epilepsy Foundation and  Epilepsy Institute, American Association on Health and  Disability and  American Autoimmune Related Diseases Association

 

Track 7: Narcolepsy and Sleep over the Lifespan

Narcolepsy is a neurological disorder that affects the control of sleep and wakefulness. People with narcolepsy experience excessive daytime sleepiness and intermittent, uncontrollable episodes of falling asleep during the daytime. These sudden sleep attacks may occur during any type of activity at any time of the day.

In a typical sleep cycle, we initially enter the early stages of sleep followed by deeper sleep stages and ultimately (after about 90 minutes) rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. For people suffering from narcolepsy, REM sleep occurs almost immediately in the sleep cycle, as well as periodically during the waking hours. It is in REM sleep that we can experience dreams and muscle paralysis which explains some of the symptoms of narcolepsy.

Narcolepsy usually begins between the ages of 15 and 25, but it can become apparent at any age. In many cases, narcolepsy is undiagnosed and, therefore, untreated.

The cause of narcolepsy is not known however, scientists have made progress toward identifying genes strongly associated with the disorder. These genes control the production of chemicals in the brain that may signal sleep and awake cycles. Some experts think narcolepsy may be due to a deficiency in the production of a chemical called hypocrite by the brain. In addition, researchers have discovered abnormalities in various parts of the brain involved in regulating REM sleep. These abnormalities apparently contribute to symptom development. According to experts, it is likely narcolepsy involves multiple factors that interact to cause neurological dysfunction and REM sleep disturbances.

Symptoms of narcolepsy include: EDS, cataplexy, Sleep paralysis  

 Related Sleep Conferences | Sleep disorder Conferences | Neuroscience Conferences

6th World Congress on Neurology and Neurological disorders, September 28-30, 2016 Toronto, Canada; 2nd International Conference on Sleep Disorders and Medicine, November 28-30, 2016 Atlanta, USA, International Conference and Exhibition on Dual Diagnosis, July 18-19, 2016 Chicago, Illinois, USA,  2nd International Conference on Parkinson’s Disease and  Movement Disorders, December 05-07, 2016 Phoenix, USA, International Conference on Neuro Oncology and Brain Tumor, July 21-22, 2016 Brisbane, Australia, 2nd International Conference on Central Nervous System Disorders and Therapeutics, December 05-07, 2016 Dubai, UAE, 4 International Conference on Vascular Dementia on June 30 - July 02, 2016 Valencia, Spain,10th International Neuroscience and Biological Psychiatry ISBS Regional on December 01- 03, 2016, at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, Havana 2016 - 18th World Congress of Psychophysiology on August 31, 2016 - 04 September 2016 at Havana, Cuba, 9th International Regional Neuroscience and Biological Psychiatry Conference "Stress and Behaviour" (China and South East Asia) on October 27-29, 2016 at Zhanjiang, China, International Neuroscience and Biological Psychiatry ISBS Symposium "Translational Neuroscience Of Stress" on November 10 - 11, 2016 at San Diego, USA, Society for Neuroscience 2016 Annual Meeting on November 12 - 16, 2016 at San Diego, USA, 2016 Sleep Summit on November 22 - 24, 2016 at London, United Kingdom, Cerebral Palsy Foundation and  CHADD – Children and  Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Dana Foundation and  Dandy-Walker Alliance, Fight SMA and  FOCUS Families, Epilepsy Foundation and  Epilepsy Institute, American Association on Health and  Disability and  American Autoimmune Related Diseases Association

 

Track 8: Sleep an Inter circuit between: Heart and Brain

The observation of our heart and brain while we sleep can provide important information for the diagnosis of widespread, chronic disorders, like insomnia, sleep apnea, hypertension and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD).

This work is a typical multidisciplinary work, which exploits the most modern theories and techniques of information analysis to describe complex behaviours of the human physiological system. The study deals with the heart-brain interactions and brain rhythms during sleep. The study is interesting within the scientific community because the alterations of these dynamics are connected with important chronic disorders with great epidemiological impact. The locution of the session is to know the information of the topics like Substrates like Role of Sleep in psychiatric functioning, Brain function during sleep deprivation and sleep disorders, Sleep loss behaviour and physiology, Sleep, memory and emotion, Memory loss and Dementia, Development, Aging and the Sleeping Brain, Cerebrovascular Sleep Disorders

 

 Related Sleep Conferences | Sleep disorder Conferences | Neuroscience Conferences

2nd International Conference on Parkinson’s Disease and  Movement Disorders, December 05-07, 2016 Phoenix, USA, International Conference on Neuro Oncology and Brain Tumor, July 21-22, 2016 Brisbane, Australia, 2nd International Conference on Central Nervous System Disorders and Therapeutics, December 05-07, 2016 Dubai, UAE, 6th World Congress on Neurology and Neurological disorders, September 28-30, 2016 Toronto, Canada; 2nd International Conference on Sleep Disorders and Medicine, November 28-30, 2016 Atlanta, USA, International Conference and Exhibition on Dual Diagnosis, July 18-19, 2016 Chicago, Illinois, USA, 4 International Conference on Vascular Dementia on June 30 - July 02, 2016 Valencia, Spain,10th International Neuroscience and Biological Psychiatry ISBS Regional on December 01- 03, 2016, at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, Havana 2016 - 18th World Congress of Psychophysiology on August 31, 2016 - 04 September 2016 at Havana, Cuba, 9th International Regional Neuroscience and Biological Psychiatry Conference "Stress and Behaviour" (China and South East Asia) on October 27-29, 2016 at Zhanjiang, China, International Neuroscience and Biological Psychiatry ISBS Symposium "Translational Neuroscience Of Stress" on November 10 - 11, 2016 at San Diego, USA, Society for Neuroscience 2016 Annual Meeting on November 12 - 16, 2016 at San Diego, USA, 2016 Sleep Summit on November 22 - 24, 2016 at London, United Kingdom, Cerebral Palsy Foundation and  CHADD – Children and  Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Dana Foundation and  Dandy-Walker Alliance, Fight SMA and  FOCUS Families, Epilepsy Foundation and  Epilepsy Institute, American Association on Health and  Disability and  American Autoimmune Related Diseases Association

 

Track 9: Sleep Deprivation and Obstructive Sleep Apnea

Sleep deprivation is the condition of not having enough sleep; it can be either chronic or acute. A chronic sleep-restricted state can cause fatigue, daytime sleepiness, clumsiness and weight loss or weight gain. It adversely affects the brain and cognitive function. However, in a subset of cases sleep deprivation can, paradoxically, lead to increased energy and alertness and enhanced mood; it has even been used as a treatment for depression . Few studies have compared the effects of acute total sleep deprivation and chronic partial sleep restriction. Complete absence of sleep over long periods has not been seen in humans (unless they suffer from fatal familial insomnia), it appears that brief micro sleeps cannot be avoided. Long-term total sleep deprivation has caused death in lab animals.

Generally, sleep deprivation may result in: aching muscles, confusion, memory lapses or loss, depression, development of false memory, hallucinations, hand tremor, headaches, malaise, Stye, Periorbital puffiness, commonly known as "bags under eyes" or eye bags, increased blood pressure, increased stress hormone levels, increased risk of diabetes, Increased risk of fibromyalgia, irritability, nystagmus (rapid involuntary rhythmic eye movement),obesity, seizures, temper tantrums in children, yawning, mania etc., the symptoms similar to: attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD),psychosis and Diabetes

Common signs of OSA include unexplained daytime sleepiness, restless sleep, and loud snoring with periods of silence followed by gasps. Less common symptoms are morning headaches; insomnia; trouble concentrating; mood changes such as irritability, anxiety and depression; forgetfulness; increased heart rate and/or blood pressure; decreased sex drive; unexplained weight gain; increased urination and/or nocturia , frequent heartburn or gastro oesophageal reflux disease; and heavy night sweats.

Related Sleep Conferences | Sleep disorder Conferences | Neuroscience Conferences

2nd International Conference on Parkinson’s Disease and  Movement Disorders, December 05-07, 2016 Phoenix, USA, International Conference on Neuro Oncology and Brain Tumor, July 21-22, 2016 Brisbane, Australia, 2nd International Conference on Central Nervous System Disorders and Therapeutics, December 05-07, 2016 Dubai, UAE, 6th World Congress on Neurology and Neurological disorders, September 28-30, 2016 Toronto, Canada; 2nd International Conference on Sleep Disorders and Medicine, November 28-30, 2016 Atlanta, USA, International Conference and Exhibition on Dual Diagnosis, July 18-19, 2016 Chicago, Illinois, USA, 4 International Conference on Vascular Dementia on June 30 - July 02, 2016 Valencia, Spain,10th International Neuroscience and Biological Psychiatry ISBS Regional on December 01- 03, 2016, at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, Havana 2016 - 18th World Congress of Psychophysiology on August 31, 2016 - 04 September 2016 at Havana, Cuba, 9th International Regional Neuroscience and Biological Psychiatry Conference "Stress and Behaviour" (China and South East Asia) on October 27-29, 2016 at Zhanjiang, China, International Neuroscience and Biological Psychiatry ISBS Symposium "Translational Neuroscience Of Stress" on November 10 - 11, 2016 at San Diego, USA, Society for Neuroscience 2016 Annual Meeting on November 12 - 16, 2016 at San Diego, USA, 2016 Sleep Summit on November 22 - 24, 2016 at London, United Kingdom, Cerebral Palsy Foundation and  CHADD – Children and  Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Dana Foundation and  Dandy-Walker Alliance, Fight SMA and  FOCUS Families, Epilepsy Foundation and  Epilepsy Institute, American Association on Health and  Disability and  American Autoimmune Related Diseases Association

 

Track 10: Medical/Psychiatric Disorders and Sleep

Even though there is no evidence that sleep disorders are a cause of psychiatric disorders. But sleep and psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and depression are closely related. Psychiatric disorders are the leading cause of insomnia, the inability to sleep. In addition to insomnia, people with psychiatric disorders have other sleep problems, including sleepiness during the day, fatigue, and nightmares.

Americans are notoriously sleep deprived, but those with psychiatric conditions are even more likely to be yawning or groggy during the day. Chronic sleep problems affect 50% to 80% of patients in a typical psychiatric practice, compared with 10% to 18% of adults in the general U.S. population. Sleep problems are particularly common in patients with anxiety, depression, bipolar disorder, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

The brain basis of a mutual relationship between sleep and mental health is not yet completely understood. But neuroimaging and neurochemistry studies suggest that a good night’s sleep helps foster both mental and emotional resilience, while chronic sleep disruptions set the stage for negative thinking and emotional vulnerability. This track through a light on the topics like REM sleep behaviour disorder and Parkinson's disease, Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and sleep, Sleep problems in children with autism, attention-deficithyperactivity disorder, and epilepsy, Post-traumatic stress disorder and Insomnia, Bipolar disorder as related to sleep conditions    , Substance abuse and chronic insomnia, Sleep and Alzheimer's disease, Treatment of sleep disorders by Traditional Oriental Medicine, Topographic and sex-related differences in sleep spindles in major depressive disorder, Sleep loss and neurologic disorders, Schizophrenia, Depression, and Sleep Disorders, Neurocognitive and Mood Effects of Sleep in Women, Impotency, Symptoms associated with obstructive sleep apnoea.

 

 Related Sleep Conferences | Sleep disorder Conferences | Neuroscience Conferences

International Conference on Neuro Oncology and Brain Tumor, July 21-22, 2016 Brisbane, Australia, 2nd International Conference on Sleep Disorders and Medicine, November 28-30, 2016 Atlanta, USA, International Conference and Exhibition on Dual Diagnosis, July 18-19, 2016 Chicago, Illinois, USA, 6th World Congress on Neurology and Neurological disorders, September 28-30, 2016 Toronto, Canada; 2nd International Conference on Parkinson’s Disease and  Movement Disorders, December 05-07, 2016 Phoenix, USA, 2nd International Conference on Central Nervous System Disorders and Therapeutics, December 05-07, 2016 Dubai, UAE, 4 International Conference on Vascular Dementia on June 30 - July 02, 2016 Valencia, Spain,10th International Neuroscience and Biological Psychiatry ISBS Regional on December 01- 03, 2016, at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, Havana 2016 - 18th World Congress of Psychophysiology on August 31, 2016 - 04 September 2016 at Havana, Cuba, 9th International Regional Neuroscience and Biological Psychiatry Conference "Stress and Behaviour" (China and South East Asia) on October 27-29, 2016 at Zhanjiang, China, International Neuroscience and Biological Psychiatry ISBS Symposium "Translational Neuroscience Of Stress" on November 10 - 11, 2016 at San Diego, USA, Society for Neuroscience 2016 Annual Meeting on November 12 - 16, 2016 at San Diego, USA, 2016 Sleep Summit on November 22 - 24, 2016 at London, United Kingdom, Cerebral Palsy Foundation and  CHADD – Children and  Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Dana Foundation and  Dandy-Walker Alliance, Fight SMA and  FOCUS Families, Epilepsy Foundation and  Epilepsy Institute, American Association on Health and  Disability and  American Autoimmune Related Diseases Association

 

Track 11: Sleepiness and Traffic Safety

According to the recent studies and investigations the vast major of sleep related breathing cases go untreated and undiagnosed. Institute of Medicine report found that an estimated 50-70 million Americans suffer from chronic sleep disorders including sleep apnea. EDS alone costs the economy $150 billion in lost productivity and workplace accidents another $48 billion in medical expenses related to auto accidents involving drowsy driving, An Approximate 1 in 5 car accidents causing serious injury are associated with excessive daytime sleepiness.

Americans are notoriously sleep deprived, but those with psychiatric conditions are even more likely to be yawning or groggy during the day. Chronic sleep problems affect 50% to 80% of patients in a typical psychiatricpractice, compared with 10% to 18% of adults in the general U.S. population. Sleep problems are particularly common in patients with anxiety, depression, bipolar disorder, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

The brain basis of a mutual relationship between sleep and mental health is not yet completely understood. But neuroimaging and neurochemistry studies suggest that a good night’s sleep helps foster both mental and emotional resilience, while chronic sleep disruptions set the stage for negative thinking and emotional vulnerability. This track through a light on the topics like REM sleep behavior disorder and Parkinson's disease, Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and sleep, Sleep problems in children with autism, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, and epilepsy, Post-traumatic stress disorder and Insomnia, Bipolar disorder as related to sleep conditions    , Substance abuse and chronic insomnia, Sleep and Alzheimer's disease, Treatment of sleep disorders by Traditional Oriental Medicine, Topographic and sex-related differences in sleep spindles in major depressive disorder, Sleep loss and neurologic disorders, Schizophrenia, Depression, and Sleep Disorders, Neurocognitive and Mood Effects of Sleep in Women, Impotency, Symptoms associated with obstructive sleep apnoea.

 

Related Sleep Conferences | Sleep disorder Conferences | Neuroscience Conferences

International Conference and Exhibition on Dual Diagnosis, July 18-19, 2016 Chicago, Illinois, USA, International Conference on Neuro Oncology and Brain Tumor, July 21-22, 2016 Brisbane, Australia, 2nd International Conference on Sleep Disorders and Medicine, November 28-30, 2016 Atlanta, USA, 6th World Congress on Neurology and Neurological disorders, September 28-30, 2016 Toronto, Canada; 2nd International Conference on Parkinson’s Disease and  Movement Disorders, December 05-07, 2016 Phoenix, USA, 2nd International Conference on Central Nervous System Disorders and Therapeutics, December 05-07, 2016 Dubai, UAE, 4 International Conference on Vascular Dementia on June 30 - July 02, 2016 Valencia, Spain,10th International Neuroscience and Biological Psychiatry ISBS Regional on December 01- 03, 2016, at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, Havana 2016 - 18th World Congress of Psychophysiology on August 31, 2016 - 04 September 2016 at Havana, Cuba, 9th International Regional Neuroscience and Biological Psychiatry Conference "Stress and Behaviour" (China and South East Asia) on October 27-29, 2016 at Zhanjiang, China, International Neuroscience and Biological Psychiatry ISBS Symposium "Translational Neuroscience Of Stress" on November 10 - 11, 2016 at San Diego, USA, Society for Neuroscience 2016 Annual Meeting on November 12 - 16, 2016 at San Diego, USA, 2016 Sleep Summit on November 22 - 24, 2016 at London, United Kingdom, Cerebral Palsy Foundation and  CHADD – Children and  Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Dana Foundation and  Dandy-Walker Alliance, Fight SMA and  FOCUS Families, Epilepsy Foundation and  Epilepsy Institute, American Association on Health and  Disability and  American Autoimmune Related Diseases Association

Track 12: Sleep Therapy Approaches

Sleep medications can be an effective short-term treatment for example, they can provide immediate relief during a period of high stress or grief. Some newer sleeping medications have been approved for long-term use. But they may not be the best long-term insomnia treatment.

Cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia may be a good treatment choice if you have long-term sleep problems. You may want to try it if you're worried about becoming dependent on sleep medications, if medications aren't effective or if they cause bothersome side effects. The motto of the session is to understand the knowledge of the topics like Substrates Novel Sleep Therapeutics in Preclinical Models

CPAP or oral appliance therapy, Tailoring sleep medicine for individual patients, Behavioral treatments of insomnia, comparison of APAP and CPAP, new sleep analysis techniques: clinical aspects, Novel sleep therapeutics and preclinical models, occupational sleep medicineSleep therapy for depression, Sleep therapy for bad memories, Cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia, Future of sleep apnea therapy and nordic sleep conference

 

 Related Sleep Conferences | Sleep disorder Conferences | Neuroscience Conferences

 

6th World Congress on Neurology and Neurological disorders, September 28-30, 2016 Toronto, Canada; 2nd International Conference on Sleep Disorders and Medicine, November 28-30, 2016 Atlanta, USA, 2nd International Conference on Central Nervous System Disorders and Therapeutics, December 5-7 2016, Dubai, UAE; 2nd International Conference on Parkinson’s Disease and Movement Disorders November 28-30, 2016 Atlanta, USA; International Conference on Neurorehabilitation, July 21-22, 2016 Brisbane, Australia; 7th Global Neurologists Annual Meeting on Neurology and Neuro Surgery, August 22-24, 2016 Vienna, Austria; 1st Middle Eastern Conference for Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery 2016, Dubai; International Conference on Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS), Germany. 6th Annual Traumatic Brain Injury Conference Washington, United States. 21st International Conference on Brain Tumor Research and Therapy, 17th International conference on pediatric neurooncology , Accelerated Cure Project for Multiple Sclerosis and Acid Maltase Deficiency Association, Acoustic Neuroma Association and ADA Disability and Business Technical Assistance Program, Aicardi Syndrome Foundation and Alliance for Aging Research, ALS Association and ALS Therapy Development Institute, Alternating Hemiplegia of Childhood Foundation and Alzheimer’s Drug Discovery Foundation.

 

Track 13: Sleep and Anesthesia

There are many similarities exist between natural sleep and anesthesia. During early parts of natural sleep, an individual is difficult to arouse. During general anesthesia, a patient cannot be aroused. Parts of the brain that are responsible for sleep are similar to areas that control general anesthesia.When one type of anesthesia, propofol, is used and there is natural sleep debt, it dissipates. Specifically, a REM sleep deficit was apparent after exposure to isoflurane, sevoflurane or halothane and a NREM sleep deficit is seen after halothane

In the United States, nearly 60,000 patients per day receive general anesthesia for surgery. General anesthesia is a drug-induced, reversible condition that includes specific behavioral and physiological traits unconsciousness, amnesia, analgesia, and akinesia with concomitant stability of the autonomic, cardiovascular, respiratory, and thermoregulatory systems. General anesthesia produces distinct patterns on the electroencephalogram (EEG), the most common of which is a progressive increase in low-frequency, high-amplitude activity as the level ofgeneral anesthesia deepens. Substantial insights can be gained by considering the relationship of general anesthesia to sleep and to coma. This track is admixture of the topics like  sleep apnea and Anesthesia, and obstructive sleep apnea anesthesia and ambulatory surgery, Practice Guidelines for the Perioperative Management sleep, sleeping pills and anesthesia, Intra-operative management, obstructive sleep apnea anesthesia guidelines, Gastro-oesophageal reflux.

 

Related Sleep Conferences | Sleep disorder Conferences | Neuroscience Conferences

2nd International Conference on Sleep Disorders and Medicine, November 28-30, 2016 Atlanta, USA, 6th World Congress on Neurology and Neurological disorders, September 28-30, 2016 Toronto, Canada; 2nd International Conference on Parkinson’s Disease and  Movement Disorders, December 05-07, 2016 Phoenix, USA, 2nd International Conference on Central Nervous System Disorders and Therapeutics, December 05-07, 2016 Dubai, UAE, 4 International Conference on Vascular Dementia on June 30 - July 02, 2016 Valencia, Spain, International Conference and Exhibition on Dual Diagnosis, July 18-19, 2016 Chicago, Illinois, USA, International Conference on Neuro Oncology and Brain Tumor, July 21-22, 2016 Brisbane, Australia,10th International Neuroscience and Biological Psychiatry ISBS Regional on December 01- 03, 2016, at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, Havana 2016 - 18th World Congress of Psychophysiology on August 31, 2016 - 04 September 2016 at Havana, Cuba, 9th International Regional Neuroscience and Biological Psychiatry Conference "Stress and Behaviour" (China and South East Asia) on October 27-29, 2016 at Zhanjiang, China, International Neuroscience and Biological Psychiatry ISBS Symposium "Translational Neuroscience Of Stress" on November 10 - 11, 2016 at San Diego, USA, Society for Neuroscience 2016 Annual Meeting on November 12 - 16, 2016 at San Diego, USA, 2016 Sleep Summit on November 22 - 24, 2016 at London, United Kingdom, Cerebral Palsy Foundation and  CHADD – Children and  Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Dana Foundation and  Dandy-Walker Alliance, Fight SMA and  FOCUS Families, Epilepsy Foundation and  Epilepsy Institute, American Association on Health and  Disability and  American Autoimmune Related Diseases Association

 

OMICS Group Conference series invites you to attend the 2nd International Conference on Sleep Disorders and Medicine popularly known as Sleep Medicine 2016which is going to be held during November 28th -30th, 2016 at Atlanta, USA.

Sleep Disorders and Sleep Therapy is a cross-disciplinary area concerned with the psycological and physical health conditions related to sleep disorders and conventional and advanced sleep therapies. The main goal of Sleep Medicine 2016 is to illuminate the gravity of the topic, how it affects our day to day lives, prevention and stairway to a healthier tomorrow.

Sleep conference 2016 scientific sessions focuses on understanding sleep disorders and sleeping problems, medical conditions associated with sleep disorders, effect of sleep disorders on the human body, conventional sleep medicine and sleep therapy and exciting innovations in every area of Sleep Disorders and Advanced Sleep Therapies. Sleep Medicine conference  2016 encompasses the popularly known causes and types of sleep disorders and also reveals the underlying psychological disorders and other unknown causes for disrupted sleep patterns. Pediatric sleep disorders throws light upon the sleep disorders that can affect children and how it effects their development. Trends in sleep medicine will focus on a variety of medical and surgical specialties including Neurology, Pulmonary Medicine, Psychiatry, Otolaryngology, Dentistry Bariatric Surgery and Nutrition.

Sleep disorders range from insomnia disorder to narcolepsy and breathing-related disorders to restless legs syndrome. They are diagnosed through comprehensive assessment, which may entail a detailed patient history, physical exam, questionnaires and sleep diaries, and clinical testing. They often are addressed in similarly comprehensive ways involving behavioral, pharmacologic and other treatments in combination with medical care.

The 2nd International Conference on Sleep Disorders and Medicine will schedule and coordinate all meetings with our Editorial Board across the World. The scientific program paves a way to gather visionaries through the research talks and presentations and put forward many thought provoking information and therapeutic techniques related to Sleep Disorders.    

We look forward to seeing you in Atlanta!!

Scientific Sessions:

 

Track 1: Novel Insights in Sleep Disorders

Sleep disorders are gaining more importance in the society due to various reasons. It has been found that around 50-70 million of the total population of United States experience sleep or wakefulness disorder. Sleep disorder in the young have psychosocial consequences with an impact on work, education and mental health may also underpin unemployment. The use of social media and nightly entertainment in young subjects may blur the clinical picture sometimes hinder a diagnosis of a real sleep disorder. Impact of sleep disturbances is increasingly focused in the society with regard to traffic safety where accidents can be related to reduce mental concentration due to sleepiness. The general outcome of a variety of diseases is increasingly highlighted, like Alzheimer’s, epilepsy and Parkinson’s disease.

The locution of the session is to know the information of the topics like mechanisms Substrates and neurodevelopment of sleep regulation and Relationships and potential mechanisms underlying sleep, neurologic disorders, complicated nocturnal behaviors, Chronobiology and brain operate, Aging and also the sleeping brain, Metabolomics and Sleep: translational Approaches from Animals to Humans, advanced sleep medicine research

 

Track 2: Neurobiology of Sleep and Wakefulness

A general clinical background is sketched about sleep cycle, circadian rhythms, biological clock, aiming at building a structure for efficient diagnosing. Which is a detailed flat form of Neuroimaging of Sleep and Sleep Disorders concerning imaging methods in sleep medicine highlights the evolving investigation possibilities from research and clinical aspects. It is a volume that we do recommend as a guide and inspiration for the researcher in the fields of Sleep wake disorders, Sleep Loss and Risk of cardiovascular disease state of the Art for Clinical Practitioners and Video Polysomnographic analysis (Diagnosis and Scoring) of Sleep connected Movement Disorders and complex Nocturnal Behaviours, Home sleep apnea Testing, Cataplexy

 

Track 3: Insomnia and Circadian Rhythm Disorders

Insomnia is a sleep disorder that is characterized by difficulty falling and/or staying asleep. The Persons with insomnia have one or more of the following: Difficulty falling asleep or Waking up often during the night and having trouble going back to sleep, Waking up too early in the morning, Feeling tired upon waking. There are two types of insomnia: primary insomnia and secondary insomnia.

Circadian Rhythm disorders are defined as Disturbances in circadian rhythm, 24-hour cycles that are endogenously generated by an organism can be categorized into 2 main groups: transient disorders and chronic disorders. Insomnia is defined as difficulty initiating or maintaining sleep. This session throws a light on Primary Insomnia and secondary insomnia: causes, diagnosis and treatment, Anxiety and Depression: Two of the Most Common Causes of Chronic Insomnia, Delayed and advance sleep-phase syndrome, How Molecular Genetics Can Tell Us How We Wake Up and Why  do We Sleep, Fluctuations ain female hormones and Periodic or temporary insomnia, Rhythmic Movements During Sleep, Diagnosis and Treatment of Circadian Rhythm Sleep-Wake Disorders

 

Track 4: Dental Sleep Medicine

Dental Sleep Medicine is an area of practice that focuses on the management of sleep-related breathing disorders including snoring and obstructive sleep apnea through the use of oral appliance therapy and upper airway surgery. This session includes key topics like drowsy driving, Orthodontics oral health, and Paediatric Dentistry and many others.

According to the recent studies and investigations the vast major of sleep related breathing cases go untreated and undiagnosed. Institute of Medicine report found that an estimated 50-70 million Americans suffer from chronic sleep disorders including sleep apnea. EDS alone costs the economy $150 billion in lost productivity and workplace accidents another $48 billion in medical expenses related to auto accidents involving drowsy driving, An Approximate 1 in 5 car accidents causing serious injury are associated with excessive daytime sleepiness.

Dentists together with sleep physicians are challenged to respond to the health risks and economic impact of untreated sleep apnea and excessive daytime sleepiness. This partnership tasks physicians with the recognition and diagnosis of sleep disorders, while dentists provide the treatment.

Sleep apnea is a potentially life-threatening medical disorder that causes your body to stop breathing during sleep. The muscles in your throat relax and the tongue may fall back and block the airway as you sleep, reducing the amount of oxygen delivered to all of your organs including your heart and brain. People with sleep apnea may snore loudly and stop breathing for short periods of time. The breathing pauses from sleep cause your body to briefly wake while you remain unaware. This can happen hundreds of times per night, and you may wake up feeling un refreshed.

In addition to snoring and excessive daytime sleepiness, sleep apnea can cause memory loss, morning headaches, irritability, depression, decreased sex drive and impaired concentration. When left untreated, sleep apnea can lead to hypertension, stroke, heart attack and sudden death while asleep.

Sleep apnea patient are often older, obese and have thick necks, but men and women of any age or body type can have sleep apnea. The sleep disorder progressively worsens with age and weight gain.

 

Track 5: Hypersomnia’s and Neurologic Sleep Disorders

These practice parameters pertain to the treatment of hypersomnia’s of central origin. It serves as both an update of previous practice parameters for the therapy of narcolepsy and as the first practice parameters to address treatment of other hypersomnia of central origin. Specific disorders addressed by these parameters are narcolepsy (with or without cataplexy, due to medical condition), the idiopathic hypersomnia, recurrent hypersomnia and hyperxsomnia due to medical condition.

Central hypersomnias are diseases manifested in excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) not caused by disturbed nocturnal sleep or misaligned circadian rhythms. The Central hypersomnias includes narcolepsy with or without cataplexy, idiopathic hypersomnia. recurrent hypersomnia, with and without long sleep , behaviorally induced insufficient sleep disorder, Narcolepsy and hypersomnia due to medical conditions, and finally hypersomnia induced by substance intake. Epworth Sleepiness Scale is a subjective tool mostly used for Excessive daytime sleepiness assessment, Whereas  the Multiple Sleep Latency Test serves as an objective diagnostic method for narcolepsy and idiopathic hypersomnias. As for symptomatic therapy of EDS, the central nervous system stimulants modafinil and methylphenidate seem to work well in most cases and in narcolepsy and Parkinson’s disease; sodium oxybate also has notable therapeutic value.

In 1966, William Dement proposed that patients with excessive daytime sleepiness, but without cataplexy, sleep paralysis, or sleep-onset rapid eye movement (REM), should not be considered narcoleptic. In 1972, Roth described a type of hypersomnia with sleep drunkenness that consists of difficulty coming to complete wakefulness, confusion, disorientation, poor motor coordination, and slowness, accompanied by deep and prolonged sleep. The abrupt sleep attacks seen in classic narcolepsy are not present in this disorder.

 

Track 6: Paediatric Sleep Disorders: Diagnosis and Treatment

Paediatric sleep disorders represent highly common phenomena that often interfere with daily patient and family functioning. Interest in and treatment of sleep disturbances in youth continues to increase, but research continues to lag. A recent survey indicated that paediatricians were more likely to prescribe antidepressant medications for insomnia than psychiatrists. Further investigation is needed to develop empirically based detection and treatment of paediatric sleep disorders.

Parasomnias result in disruption of an existing state of sleep. Arousals, partial arousals, and sleep-stage transition impositions define this category. An alternative definition of these phenomena describes deviated behavioural or physiologic events that transpire during sleep, specific sleep stages, or sleep-wake transitions. Insomnia or excessive sleepiness is uncommon in parasomnias despite intrusion upon sleep; these symptoms are characteristic of dyssomnia.

Most parasomnias affect otherwise healthy youths and commonly subside over the course of adolescence. These disorders are typically viewed as transient developmental phenomena, though children with parasomnias have been found to display higher rates of sleep-onset delay, night awakenings, bedtime resistance, and reduced sleep duration compared to a community control group.

Medical-psychiatric–associated sleep disorders comprise the neuropsychiatric conditions that typically include sleep disturbances. This category has been eliminated in DSM-5 but should still be considered by the clinician when evaluating sleep disorders. The medical differential should include the following: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), Pervasive developmental disorders, Mental retardation, Down syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome, Smith-Magenis syndrome, Tourette disorder, Nocturnal asthma, Depressive disorders, Anxiety disorders, Mania , Neuromuscular disorders, Nocturnal seizures ,Kleine-Levin syndrome,Chronic fatigue syndrome, Headaches, Blindness with associated sleep disorder. Conference series is organising conference on pediatric sleep medicine conference which is called as 2016 sleep conference

 

Track 7: Narcolepsy and Sleep over the Lifespan

Narcolepsy is a neurological disorder that affects the control of sleep and wakefulness. People with narcolepsy experience excessive daytime sleepiness and intermittent, uncontrollable episodes of falling asleep during the daytime. These sudden sleep attacks may occur during any type of activity at any time of the day.

In a typical sleep cycle, we initially enter the early stages of sleep followed by deeper sleep stages and ultimately (after about 90 minutes) rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. For people suffering from narcolepsy, REM sleep occurs almost immediately in the sleep cycle, as well as periodically during the waking hours. It is in REM sleep that we can experience dreams and muscle paralysis which explains some of the symptoms of narcolepsy.

Narcolepsy usually begins between the ages of 15 and 25, but it can become apparent at any age. In many cases, narcolepsy is undiagnosed and, therefore, untreated.

The cause of narcolepsy is not known however, scientists have made progress toward identifying genes strongly associated with the disorder. These genes control the production of chemicals in the brain that may signal sleep and awake cycles. Some experts think narcolepsy may be due to a deficiency in the production of a chemical called hypocrite by the brain. In addition, researchers have discovered abnormalities in various parts of the brain involved in regulating REM sleep. These abnormalities apparently contribute to symptom development. According to experts, it is likely narcolepsy involves multiple factors that interact to cause neurological dysfunction and REM sleep disturbances.

Symptoms of narcolepsy include: EDS, cataplexy, Sleep paralysis  

 

Track 8: Sleep an Inter circuit between: Heart and Brain

The observation of our heart and brain while we sleep can provide important information for the diagnosis of widespread, chronic disorders, like insomnia, sleep apnea, hypertension and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD).

This work is a typical multidisciplinary work, which exploits the most modern theories and techniques of information analysis to describe complex behaviours of the human physiological system. The study deals with the heart-brain interactions and brain rhythms during sleep. The study is interesting within the scientific community because the alterations of these dynamics are connected with important chronic disorders with great epidemiological impact. The locution of the session is to know the information of the topics like Substrates like Role of Sleep in psychiatric functioning, Brain function during sleep deprivation and sleep disorders, Sleep loss behaviour and physiology, Sleep, memory and emotion, Memory loss and Dementia, Development, Aging and the Sleeping Brain, Cerebrovascular Sleep Disorders

 

Track 9: Sleep Deprivation and Obstructive Sleep Apnea

Sleep deprivation is the condition of not having enough sleep; it can be either chronic or acute. A chronic sleep-restricted state can cause fatigue, daytime sleepiness, clumsiness and weight loss or weight gain. It adversely affects the brain and cognitive function. However, in a subset of cases sleep deprivation can, paradoxically, lead to increased energy and alertness and enhanced mood; it has even been used as a treatment for depression . Few studies have compared the effects of acute total sleep deprivation and chronic partial sleep restriction. Complete absence of sleep over long periods has not been seen in humans (unless they suffer from fatal familial insomnia), it appears that brief micro sleeps cannot be avoided. Long-term total sleep deprivation has caused death in lab animals.

Generally, sleep deprivation may result in: aching muscles, confusion, memory lapses or loss, depression, development of false memory, hallucinations, hand tremor, headaches, malaise, Stye, Periorbital puffiness, commonly known as "bags under eyes" or eye bags, increased blood pressure, increased stress hormone levels, increased risk of diabetes, Increased risk of fibromyalgia, irritability, nystagmus (rapid involuntary rhythmic eye movement),obesity, seizures, temper tantrums in children, yawning, mania etc., the symptoms similar to: attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD),psychosis and Diabetes

Common signs of OSA include unexplained daytime sleepiness, restless sleep, and loud snoring with periods of silence followed by gasps. Less common symptoms are morning headaches; insomnia; trouble concentrating; mood changes such as irritability, anxiety and depression; forgetfulness; increased heart rate and/or blood pressure; decreased sex drive; unexplained weight gain; increased urination and/or nocturia , frequent heartburn or gastro oesophageal reflux disease; and heavy night sweats.

 

Track 10: Medical/Psychiatric Disorders and Sleep

Even though there is no evidence that sleep disorders are a cause of psychiatric disorders. But sleep and psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and depression are closely related. Psychiatric disorders are the leading cause of insomnia, the inability to sleep. In addition to insomnia, people with psychiatric disorders have other sleep problems, including sleepiness during the day, fatigue, and nightmares.

Americans are notoriously sleep deprived, but those with psychiatric conditions are even more likely to be yawning or groggy during the day. Chronic sleep problems affect 50% to 80% of patients in a typical psychiatric practice, compared with 10% to 18% of adults in the general U.S. population. Sleep problems are particularly common in patients with anxiety, depression, bipolar disorder, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

The brain basis of a mutual relationship between sleep and mental health is not yet completely understood. But neuroimaging and neurochemistry studies suggest that a good night’s sleep helps foster both mental and emotional resilience, while chronic sleep disruptions set the stage for negative thinking and emotional vulnerability. This track through a light on the topics like REM sleep behaviour disorder and Parkinson's disease, Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and sleep, Sleep problems in children with autism, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, and epilepsy, Post-traumatic stress disorder and Insomnia, Bipolar disorder as related to sleep conditions    , Substance abuse and chronic insomnia, Sleep and Alzheimer's disease, Treatment of sleep disorders by Traditional Oriental Medicine, Topographic and sex-related differences in sleep spindles in major depressive disorder, Sleep loss and neurologic disorders, Schizophrenia, Depression, and Sleep Disorders, Neurocognitive and Mood Effects of Sleep in Women, Impotency, Symptoms associated with obstructive sleep apnoea.

 

Track 11: Sleepiness and Traffic Safety

According to the recent studies and investigations the vast major of sleep related breathing cases go untreated and undiagnosed. Institute of Medicine report found that an estimated 50-70 million Americans suffer from chronic sleep disorders including sleep apnea. EDS alone costs the economy $150 billion in lost productivity and workplace accidents another $48 billion in medical expenses related to auto accidents involving drowsy driving, An Approximate 1 in 5 car accidents causing serious injury are associated with excessive daytime sleepiness.

Americans are notoriously sleep deprived, but those with psychiatric conditions are even more likely to be yawning or groggy during the day. Chronic sleep problems affect 50% to 80% of patients in a typical psychiatric practice, compared with 10% to 18% of adults in the general U.S. population. Sleep problems are particularly common in patients with anxiety, depression, bipolar disorder, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

The brain basis of a mutual relationship between sleep and mental health is not yet completely understood. But neuroimaging and neurochemistry studies suggest that a good night’s sleep helps foster both mental and emotional resilience, while chronic sleep disruptions set the stage for negative thinking and emotional vulnerability. This track through a light on the topics like REM sleep behavior disorder and Parkinson's disease, Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and sleep, Sleep problems in children with autism, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, and epilepsy, Post-traumatic stress disorder and Insomnia, Bipolar disorder as related to sleep conditions    , Substance abuse and chronic insomnia, Sleep and Alzheimer's disease, Treatment of sleep disorders by Traditional Oriental Medicine, Topographic and sex-related differences in sleep spindles in major depressive disorder, Sleep loss and neurologic disorders, Schizophrenia, Depression, and Sleep Disorders, Neurocognitive and Mood Effects of Sleep in Women, Impotency, Symptoms associated with obstructive sleep apnoea.

 

Track 12: Sleep Therapy Approaches

Sleep medications can be an effective short-term treatment for example, they can provide immediate relief during a period of high stress or grief. Some newer sleeping medications have been approved for long-term use. But they may not be the best long-term insomnia treatment.

Cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia may be a good treatment choice if you have long-term sleep problems. You may want to try it if you're worried about becoming dependent on sleep medications, if medications aren't effective or if they cause bothersome side effects. The motto of the session is to understand the knowledge of the topics like Substrates Novel Sleep Therapeutics in Preclinical Models

CPAP or oral appliance therapy, Tailoring sleep medicine for individual patients, Behavioral treatments of insomnia, comparison of APAP and CPAP, new sleep analysis techniques: clinical aspects, Novel sleep therapeutics and preclinical models, occupational sleep medicine, Sleep therapy for depression, Sleep therapy for bad memories, Cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia, Future of sleep apnea therapy and nordic sleep conference

 

Track 13: Sleep and Anesthesia

There are many similarities exist between natural sleep and anesthesia. During early parts of natural sleep, an individual is difficult to arouse. During general anesthesia, a patient cannot be aroused. Parts of the brain that are responsible for sleep are similar to areas that control general anesthesia.When one type of anesthesia, propofol, is used and there is natural sleep debt, it dissipates. Specifically, a REM sleep deficit was apparent after exposure to isoflurane, sevoflurane or halothane and a NREM sleep deficit is seen after halothane

In the United States, nearly 60,000 patients per day receive general anesthesia for surgery. General anesthesia is a drug-induced, reversible condition that includes specific behavioral and physiological traits unconsciousness, amnesia, analgesia, and akinesia with concomitant stability of the autonomic, cardiovascular, respiratory, and thermoregulatory systems. General anesthesia produces distinct patterns on the electroencephalogram (EEG), the most common of which is a progressive increase in low-frequency, high-amplitude activity as the level of general anesthesia deepens. Substantial insights can be gained by considering the relationship of general anesthesia to sleep and to coma. This track is admixture of the topics like  sleep apnea and Anesthesia, and obstructive sleep apnea anesthesia and ambulatory surgery, Practice Guidelines for the Perioperative Management sleep, sleeping pills and anesthesia, Intra-operative management, obstructive sleep apnea anesthesia guidelines, Gastro-oesophageal reflux.

Sleep Medicine

People are often unclear about the differences between anxiety and depression, and confused as to which is their primary problem.

Anxiety Disorders are characterized by a sense of doubt and vulnerability about future events. The attention of anxious people is focused on their future prospects, and the fear that those future prospects will be bad. These are characterized by a variety of symptoms involving anxious thoughts, unexplained physical sensations, and avoidant or self protective behaviors.

Depression is actually a mixture of feeling low combined with symptoms of anxi­ety. The latter can range from waking up with a sinking feeling or butterflies in the stomach or panic attacks to full blown physical symptoms of acid indigestion, problems with swallowing, diarrhoea, a feeling of tightness in the throat, diffi­culty breathing, weight loss, and a sure­ness that “something serious is wrong with me”.

The cause and symptoms may vary depending upon the source and the sufferer. The responsibility of a task assigned or taken when the potential of the doer exceeds may lead to stress or depression. Emptiness in life and a feeling of not getting love and care of near ones is also one of the important reasons to be considered. Negative emotions like greed, jealousy, hatred, inferiority complex, job or money insecurity, poor health, mental instability, fear etc. cause anxiety and sickness.

WHO ALL SUFFERS

School and college students, graduates, research workers, and even highly qualified professionals knowingly or unknowingly suffer from stress. Be it a developed or a developing nation, depression and stress prevails in the roots. Various studies reveal that even in countries like USA, 10-15% of population remains depressed at any given time of the year. Three times more women than men are diagnosed and average duration is of 10 years. Even in UK and Germany, more than 50% youngsters fall in the state of depression. They are stressed in the run for more money and better life style. People from developing nations like India, Bangladesh, Pakistan etc. are mainly stressed because of unemployment, poverty and poor health. Natives of some nations like Iraq and Iran are depressed because of fear of getting tortured or killed in terrorist activities.

ADDICTION

So what they all do to come out of it. They consume alcohol, cigarette or drugs and many even commit suicide. Such consumables prohibit our senses to understand, to be aware, to think wisely and may cause memory loss. Such persons then appears relaxed and worryfree but for a few minutes or may be few hours only which we call the active period of the drug. Progressively such addictions ruins not only a single life but all the associations got affected at the cost of deadly health disorders. 

STRESS (BIOLOGY)

Overview

Environmental events, both physical and emotional, can produce stress reactions to widely varying degrees. Stress can affect many aspects of physiology, and levels of stress, emotional status, and means of coping with stress can influence health and disease. The stress system consists of brain elements, of which the main components are the corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and locus ceruleus (LC)-norepinephrine (NE)/autonomic systems, as well as their peripheral effectors, the pituitary-adrenal axis and the autonomic system, which function to coordinate the stress response. Activation of the stress system results in behavioural and physical changes which allow the organism to adapt. This system is closely integrated with other central nervous system elements involved in the regulation of behaviour and emotion, in addition to the axes responsible for reproduction, growth and immunity. With current trends in stress research which focus on understanding the mechanisms through which the stress-response is adaptive or becomes maladaptive, there is a growing association of stress system dysfunction, characterized by hyperactivity and/or hypoactivity to various pathophysiological states. 

According to the stressful event, the body's way to respond to stress is by sympathetic nervous system activation which results in the fight-or-flight response. Because the body cannot keep this state for long periods of time, the parasympathetic system returns the body's physiological conditions to normal (homeostasis). In humans, stress typically describes a negative condition or a positive condition that can have an impact on a person's mental and physical well-being.

There is likely a connection between stress and illness. Both acute and chronic stress can cause illness, and can lead to changes in behaviour and in physiology. Behavioural changes can be smoking, eating habits and physical activity. Physiological changes can be changes in sympathetic activation or hypothalamic pituitary adrenocorticoid activation and immunological function. 

Stress can make the individual more susceptible to physical illnesses like the common cold. Stressful events such as job changes may result in insomnia, impaired sleeping and health complaints. Research indicates the type of stressor (whether it's acute or chronic) and individual characteristics such as age and physical well-being before the onset of the stressor can combine to determine the effect of stress on an individual. An individual's personality characteristics (such as level of neuroticism, genetics, and childhood experiences with major stressors and traumas may also dictate their response to stressors. 

Chronic stress and a lack of coping resources available or used by an individual can often lead to the development of psychological issues such as depression and anxiety. This is particularly true regarding chronic stressors. These are stressors that may not be as intense as an acute stressor like a natural disaster or a major accident, but they persist over longer periods of time. These types of stressors tend to have a more negative impact on health because they are sustained and thus require the body's physiological response to occur daily. This depletes the body's energy more quickly and usually occurs over long periods of time, especially when these microstressors cannot be avoided (i.e.- stress of living in a dangerous neighbourhood). For example, studies have found that caregivers, particularly those of dementia patients, have higher levels of depression and slightly worse physical health than noncaregivers. 

Studies have also showed that perceived chronic stress and the hostility associated with Type A personalities are often associated with much higher risks of cardiovascular disease. This occurs because of the compromised immune system as well as the high levels of arousal in the sympathetic nervous system that occur as part of the body's physiological response to stressful events. 

However, it is possible for individuals to exhibit hardiness - a term referring to the ability to be both chronically stressed and healthy. Many psychologists are currently interested in studying the factors that allow hardy individuals to cope with stress and evade most health and illness problems associated with high levels of stress. Stress can be associated with psychological disorders such as general anxiety disorder, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder. However, it is important to note that everyone experiences some level of stress, and diagnosis of stress disorders can only be performed by a licensed practitioner.

It has long been believed that negative affective states, such as feelings of anxiety and depression, could influence the pathogenesis of physical disease, which in turn, have direct effects on biological process that could result in increased risk of disease in the end. However recent studies done by the University of Wisconsin-Madison and other places have shown this to be untrue, it isn't stress itself that causes the increased risk of illness or death, it is actually the perception that stress is harmful. For example, when humans are under chronic stress, permanent changes in their physiological, emotional, and behavioural responses are most likely to occur. Such changes could lead to disease. Chronic stress results from stressful events that persist over a relatively long period of time, such as caring for a spouse with dementia, or results from brief focal events that continue to be experienced as overwhelmingly long after they are over, such as experiencing a sexual assault.

Experiments show that when healthy human individuals are exposed to acute laboratory stressors, they show an adaptive enhancement of some markers of natural immunity but a general suppression of functions of specific immunity. By comparison, when healthy human individuals are exposed to real-life chronic stress, this stress is associated with a biphasic immune response where partial suppression of cellular and humoral function coincides with low-grade, nonspecific inflammation.

Even though psychological stress is often connected with illness or disease, most healthy individuals can still remain disease-free after confronting chronic stressful events. Also, people who do not believe that stress will affect their health do not have an increased risk of illness, disease, or death. This suggests that there are individual differences in vulnerability to the potential pathogenic effects of stress; individual differences in vulnerability arise due to both genetic and psychological factors. In addition, the age at which the stress is experienced can dictate its effect on health. Research suggests chronic stress at a young age can have lifelong impacts on the biological, psychological, and behavioral responses to stress later in life. 

In animals, stress contributes to the initiation, growth, and metastasis of select tumours, but studies that try to link stress and cancer incidence in humans have had mixed results. This can be due to practical difficulties in designing and implementing adequate studies.

Biological need for equilibrium

Homeostasis is a concept central to the idea of stress. In biology, most biochemical processes strive to maintain equilibrium (homeostasis), a steady state that exists more as an ideal and less as an achievable condition. Environmental factors, internal or external stimuli, continually disrupt homeostasis; an organism’s present condition is a state of constant flux moving about a homeostatic point that is that organism’s optimal condition for living. Factors causing an organism’s condition to diverge too far from homeostasis can be experienced as stress. A life-threatening situation such as a major physical trauma or prolonged starvation can greatly disrupt homeostasis. On the other hand, an organism’s attempt at restoring conditions back to or near homeostasis, often consuming energy and natural resources, can also be interpreted as stress.

Biological background

Stress can have many profound effects on the human biological systems. Biology primarily attempts to explain major concepts of stress using a stimulus-response paradigm, broadly comparable to how a psychobiological sensory system operates. The central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) plays a crucial role in the body's stress-related mechanisms. Whether one should interpret these mechanisms as the body’s response to a stressor or embody the act of stress itself is part of the ambiguity in defining what exactly stress is. Nevertheless, the central nervous system works closely with the body’s endocrine system to regulate these mechanisms. The sympathetic nervous system becomes primarily active during a stress response, regulating many of the body’s physiological functions in ways that ought to make an organism more adaptive to its environment. Below there follows a brief biological background of neuroanatomy and neurochemistry and how they relate to stress.

Neuroanatomy

Brain

The brain plays a critical role in the body’s perception of and response to stress. However, pinpointing exactly which regions of the brain are responsible for particular aspects of a stress response is difficult and often unclear. Understanding that the brain works in more of a network-like fashion carrying information about a stressful situation across regions of the brain (from cortical sensory areas to more basal structures and vice versa) can help explain how stress and its negative consequences are heavily rooted in neural communication dysfunction. In spite of this, several important brain structures implicated in playing key roles in stress response pathways are described below. 

Hypothalamus

The hypothalamus is a small portion of the brain located below the thalamus and above the brainstem. One of its most important functions is to help link together the body’s nervous and endocrine systems. This structure has many bidirectional neural inputs and outputs from and to various other brain regions. These connections help to regulate the hypothalamus’ ability to secrete hormones into the body’s blood stream, having far-reaching and long-lasting effects on physiological processes such as metabolism. During a stress response, the hypothalamus secretes various hormones, namely corticotropin-releasing hormone, which stimulates the body’s pituitary gland and initiates a heavily regulated stress response pathway.[27]

Amygdala

The amygdala is a small, "almond"-shaped structure, two of which are located bilaterally and deep within the medial temporal lobes of the brain. The amygdalae are part of the brain’s limbic system, with projections to and from the hypothalamus, hippocampus, and locus coeruleus among other areas. Thought to play a role in the processing of emotions, the amygdalae have been implicated in modulating stress response mechanisms, particularly when feelings of anxiety or fear are involved. 

Hippocampus

The hippocampus is a structure located bilaterally, deep within the medial temporal lobes of the brain, just below each amygdala, and is a part of the brain’s limbic system. The hippocampus is thought to play an important role in memory formation. There are numerous connections to the hippocampus from the cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, and amygdala, among other regions. During stress, the hippocampus is particularly important, in that cognitive processes such as prior memories can have a great influence on enhancing, suppressing, or even independently generating a stress response. The hippocampus is also an area in the brain that is susceptible to damage brought upon by chronic stress. 

Prefrontal cortex

The prefrontal cortex, located in the frontal lobe, is the anterior-most region of the cerebral cortex. An important function of the prefrontal cortex is to regulate cognitive processes including planning, attention and problem solving through extensive connections with other brain regions. The prefrontal cortex can become impaired during the stress response. 

Locus coeruleus

The locus coeruleus is an area located in the pons of the brainstem that is the principal site of the synthesis of the neurotransmitter norepinephrine, which plays an important role in the sympathetic nervous system’s fight-or-flight response to stress. This area receives input from the hypothalamus, amygdala, and raphe nucleus among other regions and projects widely across the brain as well as to the spinal cord.

Raphe nucleus

The raphe nucleus is an area located in the pons of the brainstem that is the principal site of the synthesis of the neurotransmitter serotonin, which plays an important role in mood regulation, particularly when stress is associated with depression and anxiety. Projections extend from this region to widespread areas across the brain, namely the hypothalamus, and are thought to modulate an organism's circadian rhythm and sensation of pain among other processes.

Spinal cord

The spinal cord plays a critical role in transferring stress response neural impulses from the brain to the rest of the body. In addition to the neuroendocrine blood hormone signalling system initiated by the hypothalamus, the spinal cord communicates with the rest of the body by innervating the peripheral nervous system. Certain nerves that belong to the sympathetic branch of the central nervous system exit the spinal cord and stimulate peripheral nerves, which in turn engage the body’s major organs and muscles in a fight-or-flight manner.

Pituitary gland

The pituitary gland is a small organ that is located at the base of the brain just under the hypothalamus. This gland releases various hormones that play significant roles in regulating homeostasis. During a stress response, the pituitary gland releases hormones into the blood stream, namely adrenocorticotropic hormone, which modulates a heavily regulated stress response system

Adrenal gland

The adrenal gland is a major organ of the endocrine system that is located directly on top of the kidneys and is chiefly responsible for the synthesis of stress hormones that are released into the blood stream during a stress response. Cortisol is the major stress hormone released by the adrenal gland.

In addition to the locus coeruleus existing as a source of the neurotransmitter norepinephrine within the central nervous system, the adrenal gland can also release norepinephrine during a stress response into the body’s blood stream, at which point norepinephrine acts as a hormone in the endocrine system.

Neurochemistry

Corticotropin-releasing hormone

Corticotropin-releasing hormone is the neurohormone secreted by the hypothalamus during a stress response that stimulates the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland by binding to its corticotropin-releasing hormone-receptors, causing the anterior pituitary to release adrenocorticotropic hormone. 

Adrenocorticotropic hormone

It is the hormone secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland into the body’s blood stream that stimulates the cortex of the adrenal gland by binding to its adrenocorticotropic hormone-receptors, thus causing the adrenal gland to release cortisol.

Cortisol

Cortisol is a steroid hormone, belonging to a broader class of steroids called glucocorticoids, produced by the adrenal gland and secreted during a stress response. Its primary function is to redistribute energy (glucose) to regions of the body that need it most (i.e., the brain and major muscles during a fight-or-flight situation). As a part of the body’s fight-or-flight response, cortisol also acts to suppress the body’s immune system.

Cortisol is synthesized from cholesterol in the adrenal cortex. Its primary function is to increase blood sugar through gluconeogenesis, suppress the immune system and aid in fat and protein metabolism. 

Norepinephrine

Norepinephrine is a neurotransmitter released from locus coeruleus when stimulated by the hypothalamus during a stress response. Norepinephrine serves as the primary chemical messenger of the central nervous system’s sympathetic branch that prepares the body for fight-or-flight response.

Serotonin

Serotonin is a neurotransmitter synthesized in the raphe nucleus of the pons of the brainstem and projects to most brain areas. Serotonin is thought to play an important role in mood regulation. Stress-induced serotonin dysfunctions have been associated with anxiety, fear and depression-like symptoms.

Neuropeptide Y

Neuropeptide Y is a protein that is synthesized in the hypothalamus and acts as a chemical messenger in the brain. Traditionally, it has been thought to play an important role in appetite, feeding behaviour, and satiety, but more recent findings have implicated Neuropeptide Y in anxiety and stress, specifically, stress resiliency. 

Mechanism

The human stress response involves a complex signaling pathway among neurons and somatic cells. While our understanding of the chemical interactions underlying the stress response has increased vastly in recent years, much remains poorly understood. The roles of two peptide hormones, corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and arginine-vassopressin (AVP), have been widely studied. Stimulated by an environmental stressor, neurons in the hypothalamus secrete CRH and AVP.

CRH, a short polypeptide, is transported to the anterior pituitary, where it stimulates the secretion of corticotropin. Consequently, corticotropin stimulates increased production of corticosteroids including cortisol, the primary actor directly impacting the stress response. Vasopressin, a small hormone molecule, increases reabsorption of water by the kidneys and induces vasoconstriction, the contraction of blood vessels, thereby raising blood pressure. Together, CRH and vasopressin activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The HPA axis comprises the system of feedback interactions among the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and adrenal glands.

In sum, the hypothalamus releases CRH and vasopressin, which activate the HPA axis. CRH stimulates the anterior pituitary to release corticotropin, which travels through the bloodstream to the adrenal cortex, where corticoptropin then upregulates cortisol production. Vasopressin, the other hormone secreted by the hypothalamus, stimulates the cortical collecting ducts of the kidneys to increase reuptake of water, resulting in smaller volumes of urine formed. As the next section will illuminate, corticosteroids such as cortisol act across the entire body to promulgate the stress response.

Cortisol is a glucocorticoid horone synthesized from cholesterol by enzymes of the cytochrome P450 family in the zona fasciculata, the middle area of the adrenal cortex. Regulated via the HPA axis, cortisol is the primary hormone responsible for the stress response. Expressed at the highest levels in the early morning, cortisol’s main function is to restore homeostasis following exposure to stress. The effects of cortisol are felt over virtually the entire body and impact several homeostatic mechanisms. While cortisol’s primary targets are metabolic, it also affects ion transport, the immune response, and even memory.

Cortisol counters insulin by encouraging higher blood sugar and stimulating gluconeogenesis, the metabolic pathway that synthesizes glucose from oxaloacetate. The presence of cortisol triggers the expression of enzymes critical for gluconeogenesis, facilitating this increase in glucose production. Conversely, it also stimulates glycogen synthesis in the liver, which decreases net blood sugar levels. In these ways, cortisol carefully regulates the level of glucose circulating through the bloodstream. Cortisol’s beneficial effects are clear from its role in metabolism: during states of fasting, when blood glucose has been depleted, cortisol ensures a steady supply of glucose via gluconeogenesis.

Cortisol’s role in ion regulation, particularly regarding sodium and potassium, has also been widely studied. Cortisol prevents cells from losing sodium and accelerates the rate of potassium excretion. This helps regulates bodily pH, bringing it back into equilibrium after a destabilizing event. Cortisol’s ability to regulate the action of cellular sodium-potassium pumps has even led to speculation that it originally evolved as a sodium transporter.

Cortisol’s weakening effects on the immune response have also been well documented. T-lymphocyte cells are an essential component of cell-mediated immunity. T-cells respond to cytokine molecules called interleukins via a signaling pathway. Cortisol blocks T-cells from proliferating by preventing some T-cells from recognizing interleukin signals. It also stifles inflammation due to inhibition of histamine secretion. Cortisol’s ability to prevent the promulgation of the immune response can render individuals suffering from chronic stress highly vulnerable to infection.

A role for cortisol in memory has also been demonstrated. The hippocampus, the region of the brain where memories are processed and stored, contains many cortisol receptors. While normal cortisol levels have no adverse effects on the hippocampus, excess cortisol overwhelms the hippocampus and actually causes atrophy. Studies of the elderly have indicated that those with elevated cortisol levels display significant memory loss resulting from hippocampus damage, but the exact age range at risk is unclear. There is a reprieve, however, for the chronically stressed: the damage incurred is usually reversible.

Finally, cortisol participates in an inhibitory feedback loop by blocking the secretion of corticotripin-releasing hormone, preventing the HPA axis interactions central to glucocorticoid secretion. Many in the scientific community speculate that chronic levels of high stress disrupt the delicate feedback balance, resulting in the failure of feedback inhibition to operate and the continued release of cortisol.

ROLE OF SOCIETIES, ORGANIZATIONS, NGO’S AND SPIRITUALITY

Doctors, researchers, professors, social workers and students have come forward in last many years to treat this state of mind with as many ways they can. Allopathic, natural and a number of remedies have been employed in different cases and positive results have been seen. Other than medication, Spirituality is believed as a saviour for a big number of sufferers. How spirituality can be helpful in managing stress? Will it actually be able to or not? And the proved answer is Yes, Spirituality has the potential to deal with stress, depression and anxiety. It means that a few minutes of practice on our breathing pattern along with meditation can bring the transformation that we are looking for. Also we can say that yoga and meditation are the two pillars which we can utilize to come out of depression and anxiety. These mind-body techniques promote feeling of joy and well-being. Please note that yoga practices vary and some may not be recommended for people with certain medical conditions.

Let us understand this basis with a live example. Let us observe the pattern of our breath when we are calm, it is normal and at situations when we are angry, greedy or jealous it is either fast or slow. That means the pattern of our breath depends upon our emotional state. So to manage our emotions, we have a key that if we could manage our breath, we can manage our emotions.

Dr. Jon Kabat-Zinn's meditation studies at the University of Massachusetts have shown that practicing meditation to lower stress can improve mood and relieve negative feelings of depression such as anxiety and anger. Using these meditation practices, called mindfulness-based cognitive therapy, several studies have found that meditation can reduce the risk for a recurrence of major depression.

To learn this management, one needs to attend any of the workshops, conferences and seminars that are now getting organized at various parts of the world. Highly intellectual personalities have come up with new ideas and techniques. Disease free body, calm and focused mind, inhibition free intellect and trauma free memory is the birth right of every individual.

TREATMENT AND REMEDIES

Allopathic

In the past, people with symptoms of depression or anxiety were often treated with tranquillizers, or benzodiazepines like diazepam (Valium). Although tranquillizers may still be used by the medical profession if symptoms of anxiety are very severe, they are now generally recommended only for short term use (up to two weeks at a time).

The most common medications for depression these days are antidepressants which help to rebalance the mood hor­mones, commonly selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and less often, the tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs). However, their effectiveness in mild or subthreshold symptoms is questioned by modern research and they are now not routinely advised for by the National Institute of Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE).

Standard allopathic treatment for depression used to involve cognitive/behavioral therapy – let’s sit on the couch and talk. Increasingly in these days of HMOs, standard allopathic treatment comes from the prescription pad – antidepressants, anticonvulsants, anxiolytics (anti-anxiety agents), stimulants, and other psychotropic (mind-changing) pharmaceuticals.

Drugs sometimes calm the anxiety, sometimes they merely make people feel brain fogged. Depression drugs have a track record of giving about a 50 percent decrease in symptoms. Many patients have experienced that over time their anti-depressant doesn’t seem to work anymore and they have to switch to an ever stronger cocktail of pharmaceuticals. If you are way low on serotonin – the hormone that is a master neurotransmitter – the drugs may not work much at all. Up to 20% of patients fail to respond to any form of therapy for depression.

Homeopathic

Considering a research paper published in NCBI, one could opt for homeopathic treatment, a well-established yet largely untested therapeutic system with potential relevance to psychiatry. It may also be useful in the treatment of affective and anxiety disorders in patients with mildly to severely symptomatic conditions. Experts suggest that homeopathy should not be used as the only treatment in serious depressive illness where there are feelings of wanting to die or a risk of suicide, or in mental health problems such as bipolar disorder (manic depression), schizophrenia or severe post­natal depression. These are complex and potentially life threatening illnesses and need advice from a psychiatrist and other healthcare pro­fessionals. Homeopathy may have a part to play as an additional or complemen­tary treatment but not as a stand alone therapy in these situations.

There are so many homeopathic med­icines that can be used to treat the numer­ous symptoms of depression and anxiety that it can be difficult to know where to start. It is important to make sure that your symptoms are not due to another illness such as an underactive thyroid or a stomach ulcer, so please talk to your doctor first to make sure of the diagnosis before starting homeopathic treatment.

Herbal

Herbal treatments also work in a similar way to conven­tional antidepressants although usually with a lower rate of side effects. They often have a combination of active ingredients as opposed to the synthetic medications, which are single substances in a poten­tially more potent form.

There is a wide variety of herbal supplements that people believe can treat many illnesses. For depression, St. John's wort is a common herbal supplement that is used and work best for mild to moderate depression, not the more severe forms. Other supplements that have varying amounts of evidence for depression are 5-HTP and SAMe. Using an herbal supplement requires caution and should be taken only after consulting your doctor. This is because supplements could interact with medicines that you are also taking, and use could be dangerous for people with certain conditions. Your doctor can help you weigh the risks and potential benefits. That way, you can make an informed decision.

Exercise and Acupuncture

Along with yoga and meditation that we have discussed earlier, exercise and acupuncture are suggested by various mental health experts. Exercise, if done correctly, is one of the most promising natural treatment for depression. It elevates mood quickly and reliably. It is believed that it affects the same neurotransmitter system that medication does, “Says Dr. Shadick. A recent review of all the available controlled trials that compared exercise with either no treatment or another type of established treatment in people diagnosed with depression concluded that exercise does relieve the symptoms. But how effective and which type of exercise is best remain to be seen. Many studies, going back to 1981, support the use of exercise as a part of treatment plan for mild to moderate depression. Most experts suggest about 30 to 60 minutes if moderate exercise to lift your mood.

Acupuncture is increasingly being used as a natural treatment for depression. One area where acupuncture has been studied for depression is associated with pregnancy. Because of potential side effects of drug treatment in pregnant women, acupuncture would be a valuable alternative. In a study published in the Journal of Affective Disorders, 61 pregnant women with major depression were treated with acupuncture specifically tailored to treat depression, general acupuncture that didn’t target depression, or with massage therapy. The women who were treated with acupuncture specifically targeting depression had a response rate of 69 percent. In comparison, the response rates were lower for those who received general acupuncture (47%) or massage therapy (32%).

Massage therapy

It uses touch to provide relaxation. Most touch therapies are based on the premises that the mind and body are interconnected and that physical health and emotional well-being are closely linked. The belief is that, when the body is relaxed, the mind contributes to better health, less depression, and overall well-being. There are also reports that mind/body exercises used with various types of bodywork can boost feelings of calmness.

Guided imagery

Also called visualization, is a method of communication between body and mind that utilizes perception, vision, smell, taste and touch along with position and movement to produce a relaxation response. It involves mentally seeing pictures of relaxing situations, such as a sunset on the beach, a flowing mountain waterfall, or a brilliant mountain sunrise.

As you use all your senses during imagery, you will actually make an effort to smell the flowers and trees, feel the breeze or temperature, feel the texture of the surface under your feet and may hear all the sounds in nature.

While some people are better at imagining than others, anyone can master this simple relaxation technique. You can use guided imagery during massage or another touch therapy to boost your relaxation and your feelings of serenity and peacefulness. Much like learning to play the piano or tennis, becoming skilled at guided imagery involves time, patience, and practice. It is one relaxation skill that cannot be rushed or hurried.

Music therapy

It has been shown to be an effective non-drug approach for people of all ages that assists in reducing fear, anxiety, stress, or grief. Music can be thought of as a natural tranquilizer for the human spirit.

Pythagoras, the sixth century B.C. philosopher and mathematician, is thought to have been the founder of music therapy. During World War II, the Veterans Hospitals had volunteers who played their music for the wounded soldiers. The results were so positive that the authorities added music therapy programs.

Get in routine and set goals

If you are depressed, you need a routine, says Ian Cook, MD. He's a psychiatrist and director of the Depression Research and Clinic Program at UCLA. Set daily goals for yourself. "Start very small," Cook says. "Make your goal something that you can succeed at, like doing the dishes every other day." As you start to feel better, you can add more challenging daily goals.

Eat healthy and get enough sleep

There is no magic diet that fixes depression. It's a good idea to watch what you eat, though. If depression tends to make you overeat, getting in control of your eating will help you feel better. Although nothing is definitive, Cook says there's evidence that foods with omega-3 fatty acids (such as salmon and tuna) and folic acid (such as spinach and avocado) could help ease depression.

Stress can make it hard to get enough shut-eye, and too little sleep can make depression worse. What can you do? Start by making some changes to your lifestyle. Go to bed and get up at the same time every day. Try not to nap. Take all the distractions out of your bedroom- no computer and no TV. In time, you may find your sleep improves.

Take on responsibilities

When you’re depressed, you may want to pull back from life and give up your responsibilities at home and at work. Don't. Staying involved and having daily responsibilities can help you maintain a lifestyle that can help counter depression. They ground you and give you a sense of accomplishment. If you're not up to full-time school or work, that’s fine. Think about part-time. If that seems like too much, consider volunteer work.

Challenge negative thoughts

In your fight against depression, a lot of the work is mental, changing how you think. When you're depressed, you leap to the worst possible conclusions. The next time you're feeling terrible about yourself, use logic as a natural depression treatment. You might feel like no one likes you, but is there real evidence for that? You might feel like the most worthless person on the planet, but is that really likely? It takes practice, but in time you can beat back those negative thoughts before they get out of control.

Do something new 

When you’re depressed, you’re in a rut. Push yourself to do something different. Go to a museum. Pick up a used book and read it on a park bench. Volunteer at a soup kitchen. Take a language class. "When we challenge ourselves to do something different, there are chemical changes in the brain," Cook says. "Trying something new alters the levels of the brain chemical, dopamine, which is associated with pleasure, enjoyment, and learning."

Try to have fun

If you’re depressed, make time for things you enjoy. What if nothing seems fun anymore? "That's just a symptom of depression," Cook says. You have to keep trying anyway. As strange as it might sound, you have to work at having fun. Plan things you used to enjoy, even if they feel like a chore. Keep going to the movies. Keep going out with friends for dinner. When you're depressed, you can lose the knack for enjoying life, Cook says. You have to relearn how to do it. 

STRESS STATISTICS IN EUROPE

Work related stress is one of the biggest health and safety challenges. According to a study in 2005, Stress is the second most frequently reported health problem, affecting 22% of workers from the European Union and this number is likely to increase. Studies also suggest that stress is a factor in between 50 to 60% of all lost working days that represents a huge cost in terms of both human distress and impaired economic performance. Unemployment in the eurozone as a whole is sitting at an all time record of 12%. Specifically if we look at France, it has surged to 10.6%, a new all time record. In Greece, it has risen to 27.2% and those under the age of 25 particularly holds 59.3%. French car sales in March 2013 were 16% whereas German car holds 17% lower than they were one year earlier. 

STRESS STATISTICS IN SPAIN

Work related stress and unemployment 

In Spain, the National Health Insurance (NHI) covers the 100% of acute inpatient and outpatient primary and specialist care. Drug coverage is 100% in those over age 65 and 60% of those under age 65. Despite this, psychiatric care has been one of the most neglected areas within the health system. The 1986 General Health Act and the so-called psychiatric reform were key issues in the development of the mental healthcare system (MHCS) in Spain. MEDLINE, Spanish journals, reference lists, national databases, and European and Spanish official documents describe the current state of the MHCS that reveals the existence of great variability among the autonomous communities with respect to mental health resources and provision of care. The 2006 plan evaluation report concluded that, of the 17 ACs, only five had specific resources (funding and time) for this kind of coordination (MHSPE, 2009). Also there is lack of national epidemiological information on mental disorders. Training in psychiatry is well established, although there is no specialism in child and adolescent psychiatry.

Unemployment rate has set a new record of 27% and for those under the age of 25, it is 57.2%. According to 4th EWCS (2005), 20% of Spanish workers reported work-related stress. Symptoms diagnosed were difficulty in getting to sleep or sleeping badly, headaches, dizziness, and so forth. In the year 2003, 59% of workers took medical advice one or more times and 15.7% of them consulted a doctor. Stress was the fourth most frequent reason given for consulting a doctor (14.7% of the cases), after backache (47%), neck ache (29.3%), and pain in an upper limb - shoulder, arm, elbow, forearm (16.4%).  In addition, 6% of workers showed three or more symptoms related to stress.

July 2015, Economic reports states that unemployment is approaching levels not seen since the Second Republic of the 1930s. The Madrid research group RR de Acuña & Asociados said the collapse of Spain's building industry will cause the economy to contract for the next three years, with a peak to trough loss of over 11pc of GDP. RR de Acuña said the overhang of unsold properties on the market, or still being built, has reached 1,623,000 . This dwarfs annual demand of 218,000, and will take six or seven years to clear. The group said Spain's unemployment will peak at around 25pc, comparable to the worst chapter of the Great Depression.

Separately, UBS said that unemployment will reach 4.8m and may go as high as 5.4m if the job purge in the service sector gathers pace. Roberto Ruiz, the bank's Spain strategist, said salaries must fall by 10pc in real terms to regain lost competitiveness.

Stress during Adolescence 

The actual risk factors associated with mental health in adolescents were not well known in the general population of Spain. Therefore, a study conducted and published in NCBI aims to identify individual and clustered behavioural risk factors for psychological distress. 

Mental health was assessed using the General Health Questionnaire with cross-sectional study between 2008 and 2009 among 4054 students representing fourth year of secondary education in the region of Madrid (Spain). 

Results suggest that psychological distress was more frequent in those who did insufficient physical activity, smoker, alcohol consumers and users of illegal drugs. It also showed a positive dose-response relationship with the number of risk behaviours for eating disorders (low consumption of fruits and vegetables). Moreover, it was associated with both thin or very thin body image and perceived overweight or obesity.

Stressed Spanish Women and Men

Another paper published in NCBI examine the sociodemographic, psychological, and health-related factors (considered jointly) associated with poor mental health in midlife and to analyze whether risk and protective factors differed in men and women.

Middle class sample of 252 women and 189 men between 45 and 65 years of age from Spanish rural areas were examined cross-sectionally. Mental health status was measured with the General Health Questionnaire.

Results inform us that the percentage of women (14.3%) with poor mental health was twice that of the men (7.4%). In women, the following variables were significantly and positively related to poor mental health: consumption of psychoactive drugs, physiological and cognitive anxiety; self-esteem and family satisfaction were protective factors. For men, physical complaints and cognitive anxiety were significant risk factors, and job satisfaction was a protective factor.

In general, the psychological variables were more clearly related to poor mental health. Women had a more unfavourable profile, and the variables related to poor mental health differed for men and women, perhaps due to social roles associated with gender. To facilitate diagnosis and take preventive measures, men's and women's risk factors for poor mental health should be differentiated.

Acculturative Stress

Another study explores acculturative stress as a risk factor for depressive and anxiety disorders as well as their symptomatology. It is hypothesized that perceived discrimination and general psychosocial stress will show the greatest association with psychopathology. The sample consists of 414 Latin American immigrant primary care patients in Barcelona. The instruments used are: the Barcelona Immigration Stress Scale (BISS) to evaluate acculturative stress, the Goldberg Anxiety and Depression Scale (GADS) for anxiety and depression symptoms, the Mini International Neurological Interview (MINI), a semi-structured interview, to detect psychiatric pathology, and a questionnaire for sociodemographic and attitudinal characteristics. The most elevated levels of acculturative stress were observed in the factors homesickness and general psychosocial stress. Acculturative stress is associated with depression and anxiety. With the covariants controlled, intercultural contact stress and general psychosocial stress maintain the relationship. Acculturative stress constitutes a risk factor for both depression and anxiety. General psychosocial stress and intercultural contact stress are related to psychopathology. Perceived discrimination and homesickness are not associated with psychopathology in the Spanish context, suggesting that cultural congruity plays a key role in the relationship between immigration and mental health.

IMPORTANCE OF THIS CONFERENCE

All these studies described earlier, bring our attention to organize this conference to help and support the depressed community. This conference has the potential to reveal:

• Important insights into many areas of research

• How to manage the side effects of anti-depressants as well as long term treatment and resistance.

• How to diagnose depression in primary care

• Plenary lectures, symposia, workshops, poster presentations and various programs on variety of topics 

• Effectiveness of cognitive behavioural therapies

• Effective coordination between mental health and primary care

• Health and Spirituality

• Suicidal risk in people

• Care of individuals with substance use disorder

• Better care and rehabilitation programmes for individuals with severe mental disorders

• Allopathic, herbal, homeopathic and various other treatment remedies

• Stress factors in adolescent and elder ages

• Promotion of management mechanisms that facilitate continuity of care and networking

• Platform to meet the experts i.e. Noble Laureates, Doctors, Scientists, Professors and Research workers 

• Sharing of ideas for advance diagnostic and therapeutic approaches

• Opportunity to take away practical advice to translate into clinical practice

• Students would be given sufficient time and resources to get to know more about their ideals that would help them in their scientific projects, career and research work

CONFERENCE STRATEGIES

• Promotion, prevention and eradication of the stigma associated with mental disorders

• Mental healthcare

• Intra and inter institutional coordination

• Training of healthcare professionals 

• Research

• Better harmonization and integration between health and social care 

• Development of monitoring mechanisms for assessment of effectiveness of changes and mitigation of geographical disparities

SCOPE

In Spain, stress is most prevalent in the education and health sectors, as well as in agriculture, hunting, forestry & fishing. 42.9% workers from financial intermediation sector, 29% clerks and 24% technicians consulted a doctor most often about stress-related health issues. Symptoms diagnosed were difficulty in getting to sleep or sleeping badly, headaches, dizziness, and so forth.  MEDLINE, Spanish journals, reference lists, national databases, and European and Spanish official documents describe the current state of the MHCS that reveals the existence of great variability among the autonomous communities with respect to mental health resources and provision of care.

Currently, various Associations and Foundations are funding Mental Health Projects in Spain. Associacion Espanola de Neuropsiquiatria (AEN), FEAFES, Fundacion Intras, Fundacion Mundo Bipolar, Associacion Nacional de Enfermeria en Salud Mental Andalusian School of Public Health (EASP), ANAR Foundation etc. Also many Universities are providing a valuable support in the field of stress management. University of the Basque Country, University of Barcelona, University of Valencia are few of them.

Many companies, in guidance of highly skilled research workers are presently working hard to bring some comfort to the concerned ones globally. Also Universities have highly qualified professors and teaching staff to practically train their students to carry forward the research contributions. Idea is to bring all these dignitaries together to assure an efficient flow of knowledge and expertise. Reports from previous held conference in Spain, 2014 reveals how knowledge got shared among Universities and Companies. Renowned speakers from US, Japan, Italy, Spain, UK, Turkey, Germany and Poland contribute with their all best in making the conference, a big success.

TARGET AUDIENCE

• Doctors, Professors, Readers and Directors, Research workers and Lecturer and Exhibitors

• Humanitarian and Spiritual Leaders

• Specialists in psychiatry, psychology, psychotherapy and neurosciences

• Specialists in schizophrenia and bipolar and anxiety disorders

• Mental health pharmacists

• Community mental health and psychiatric nurses

• General practitioners and physicians interested in mental health

• All trainees and mental health service managers

• People with obsessive compulsive and personality disorders

• People with alcohol use, suicidal behaviours and substance use disorders

• Women being divorced/separated

• In case of death of a family member, alcoholic and immigrants-marginalized people

SHARING KNOWLEDGE WITH UNIVERSITIES AND COMPANIES

Many companies, in guidance of highly skilled research workers are presently working hard to bring some comfort to the concerned ones globally. Also Universities have highly qualified professors and teaching staff to practically train their students to carry forward the research contributions. Idea is to bring all these dignitaries together to assure an efficient flow of knowledge and expertise. Reports from previous held conference in Spain, 2014 reveals how knowledge got shared among Universities and Companies. Renowned speakers from US, Japan, Italy, Spain, UK, Turkey, Germany and Poland contribute with their all best in making the conference, a big success. 

BEST GLOBAL PSYCHIATRY/PSYCHOLOGY UNIVERSITIES

Harvard University, King’s College London, Yale University, University of California- Los Angeles, Stanford University, Columbia University, University of Pittsburgh, University of California- San Diego, Duke University, University College London, University of Michigan, University of Pennsylvania, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, University of Toronto, University of Oxford, University of California- Berkley, Washington University in St. Louis, University of Minnesota- Twin Cities, University of Cambridge, New York University  

FUNDING

USA

• Hogg foundation for Mental Health grant $192,440 to ten tenure-track assistant professors in Texas. Also the foundation announced its new round of Mental Health Policy Fellow Grants in June 2012. 

• The Bristol-Myers Squibb Foundation awarded $2.34 million to two grantees—one in south Florida and the other in King County, Washington

• The Endowment for Health awarded $142,968 to the New Hampshire Legal Assistance Youth Law Project. New Hampshire Bar Foundation also funds this project.

• The Maine Health Access Foundation, in Portland, launched a ten-year, $10 million Integration Initiative in 2006.

• New York Community Trust awarded $85,000 grant to Maimonides Medical Center, in Brooklyn.

• In 2012—with funding from the Meadows Foundation, a statewide funder based in Dallas, Texas—the Center for Public Policy Priorities hired a mental health policy and budget analyst to broaden the scope of its work in health care.

• The Bristol-Myers Squibb Foundation’s  awarded a total of $2.12 million to five organizations, including Suicide Prevention International and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

• In addition, the New York State Health Foundation is looking out for the mental health and other needs of veterans in that state through its Initiative for Returning Veterans and Their Families.

• SAMHSA- Substance abuse and mental health service administration makes grant funds available through the Center for Substance Abuse Prevention, the Center for Substance Abuse Treatment, and the Center for Mental Health Services. 

 

EUROPE

Baxter International Foundation in association with: 

• Irish Hospice Foundation, Belgium Brussels- Funds $87,027 to expand nursing services.

• De Overmolen, Ireland Dublin- Funds $109,200 to hire a full-time care and interaction coach to provide animal-assisted therapy for people with physical, visual, auditory, and mental limitations to improve their quality of life.

• ANAR Foundation, Madrid Spain- Funds $85672 to allow the addition of a paid psychologist and two intern/trainees to enable the growth of the ANAR telephonic support program for children and adolescents reaching for help. 

• Samusocial asbl, Belgium Brussels- Funds $97,166  to support the expansion of the current psychological mobile teams.

Like many other European countries mental healthcare is an integral part of the general healthcare with universal coverage funded by taxation. Total health expenditure accounted for 7.7% of GDP in 2003 (public health expenditure was 5.6% of GDP). Although the actual percentage expended in mental care is not known and estimates are unreliable, approximately 5% of total health expenditure can be attributed to mental health. 

Psychiatric care is one of the most neglected areas within the health system due to the longstanding fragmentation of responsibility for services among various public administration bodies, coupled with a lack of coordination, reliance on religious charitable organisations, chronic under-financing and a lack of interest in the field by most central and regional authorities. 

 

Sleep Medicine 2015
Sleep Medicine 2015 Report

OMICS International takes a great pride in announcing the commencement of Annual Summit on Sleep Disorders and Medicine 2015 during August 10-12, 2015. Sleep Medicine-2015 has received a benevolent response from all over the world. This has been conducted with the aim and the categorical intent of promoting the developments of new perceptions and ideas for exploring the high level of knowledge reached by scientific community on Sleep disorders and Medicine. The extremely illustrious conference hosted by OMICS International was marked with the attendance of young and brilliant researchers, business delegates and talented student communities.

The conference was organized around the theme "Medical conditions related to sleep disorders and advanced sleep therapy". The event implanted a firm relation of upcoming strategies in the field of Sleep Disorders with the scientific community. The conceptual and applicable knowledge shared, will also foster organizational collaborations to nurture scientific accelerations.

This annual conference brought together Leading World Sleep physicians, Dentists Neurosurgeons, Neuroradiologists, Clinicians, Professors, Care Specialists, Students and other professionals in which many issues in stroke field were discussed in depth to provide up-to-date information to the world. On the other hand, the meeting provided an opportunity for an open and animated sharing of ideas and experiences.

The conference witnessed an amalgamation of peerless speakers, who enlightened the crowd with their enviable research knowledge and on various alluring topics related to the field of Sleep disorders. The eminent personalities at the conference were Sona Nevsimalova, Charles University, Czech Republic, G Dave Singh, BioModeling Solutions, Inc.,USA, Joannes M Hallegraeff, Hanze University Groningen, Netherlands, Roger L Price, Breathing Well LLC, USA, Yuichi Inoue, Tokyo Medical University, Japan, Kathy Sexton Radek, Elmhurst College, USA.

OMICS International offers its heartfelt appreciation to all the Organizing Committee Members, Chairs and Co-chairs, Speakers, Students, Media Partners and Editorial Board Members of Journal of Sleep Disorders & Therapy, Journal of Neurological Disorders, Sleep Disorders: Treatment & Care, Pulmonary & Respiratory Medicine Open Access, and Journal of Orthodontics & Endodontics who supported the conference in every aspect for the awe-inspiring exhibition at the venue.

We once again thank you all for the enormous exquisite response. This inspires us to continue organizing events and conferences for furthering the Clinical Research. OMICS therefore, is glad to announce its "2nd International Conference on Sleep Disorders and Medicine" which will be held during November 28-30, 2016 Atlanta, USA.

Mark your calendars for the upcoming extravaganza; we are hoping to see you soon!


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